IJOART Volume 7, Issue 6, June 2018 Edition

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Assessment of wheat genotypes based on culm reserves contribution to grain yield []

To study the genotypic variation in terms of culm reserves to yield attributes and grain yield in wheat, twelve cultivars were used as experiment materials. Ten tillers were sampled once a week during grain filling period to determine the changes in dry weights of different parts to examine the contribution of culm reserves to yield. The results in the experiment revealed that the grain yield varied from 261 to 535 g m−2 with the mean of 419 g m−2. The higher grain yield is attributable to increased contribution of carbon assimilation measured as the changes in total dry mass and /or remobilized culm reserves. Generally, high yielding cultivars showed higher total dry mass accumulation compared to low yielding ones. They also exhibited almost unchanged leaf greenness for longer period during grain filling that indicate more contribution of current assimilation in the high yielding cultivars. Moreover, high yielders also showed higher WSCs contents in culm at milk ripe stage. Culm WSCs contents at milk ripe and maturity varied from 83 to 603 and 4 to 151 mg culm−1, respectively among the cultivars. The amount of remobilized culm WSCs varied from 26 to 556 mg culm−1. In general, contribution of culm WSCs to grain yield is higher in high yielders than in low yielders. The contribution ranged from 2 to 29% of total grain weight. In conclusion, higher contribution of both current assimilation and culm reserves results in higher grain yield of wheat grown in Bangladesh.

Dynamic Relationships among Urbanization, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption in Bangladesh: An ARDL Bounds Test Approach[]

From energy economics we know the nexus between economic growth and energy consumption and from urban economics we get the nexus between urbanization and economic growth. In this study we amalgamate this two theory and try to investigate the dynamic relationships among urbanization, economic growth and energy consumption in the context of Bangladesh. Times series data of Bangladesh are taken from World Development Indicator 2017 over the period of 1973-2014. Augmented Dickey Fuller test are used to check the unit root problem and ARDL bounds test approach has been employed for empirical analysis. Three different regressions are estimated separately to investigate the dynamic relationships among urbanization, economic growth and energy consumption and among them only one is free from serial correlation and heteroscedasticity problem, distributed normally, functional form is correct and cumulative sum and cumulative sum squares of the recursive residuals are within the bounds that means the long-run and short-run parameters are stable. This one is that when we use energy consumption as dependent variable. Empirical results confirm that urbanization, economic growth and energy consumption are cointegrated that means they have long-run equilibrium relationships. Empirical results reveal that one percent increase in economic growth will cause to increase energy consumption by 0.40 percent in the short run and 0.74 percent in the long-run, while one percent increase in urbanization process will cause to increase energy consumption by 0.072 percent in the short-run and 0.13 percent in the long-run. Moreover, the short-run deviations from the long-run equilibrium are corrected by at a speed of 54.03 percent towards the long-run equilibrium path each year. Finally results of Granger causality tests confirm that there is a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to energy consumption.


Background: Women unemployment is a problem that affects most countries. The ability of women to engage in productive activities has both social and economic consequences for an economy. Objective: the main objective of the study was to assess the determinant factors of women’s employment status.Method: the study data were obtained from 578 respondents through face to face interview. Tabular methods of data presentation and inferential analysis, particularly binary logistic regression were applied.Results: from the total 578 women included in the study, 30.3% were no participating in labor marketing, while 69.7% were participating in labor marketing. Age is found one of the important significant predictors of women employment status. The estimated odds ratio for age ranges between 31 and 41 years in relation to greater than 41 years old (reference) is 2.261 (95% CI: 1.202 – 4.253). This means that opportunities to work in any economic generating activities of those who are aged between 31 and 41 years were increased by 2.261 times related to more than 41 years. Marital status is one of the factors which influence employment status of women. The estimated odds ratio for never married marital status in relation to divorced (reference) is 3.152 (95% CI: .1.222 – 8.128). This means that never married women who are currently working in any economic generating activities were 3.152 times higher as compared to divorced. Therefore, the predictors which are significant factors of women employment status were age, marital status, expenditure, average time spent for domestic works and education level.Conclusions: average time spent for domestic works and currently working women were negatively associated. Means that when they spent much time for domestic works they will not have chance participate in any economic generating jobs. With increase in education people become more productive and skilled and become more equipped with knowledge. Educational attainment is positively and significantly related to economic outcome as being employed. Generally women employment status is influenced by age, marital status, expenditure, average time spent and education level.

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