IJOART Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2019 Edition

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A total of 214 lentil lines/varieties were screened out against stemphylium blight in three subsequent years of 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14 in Bangladesh. In the first year and second year different lines/varieties were screened in the research field under artificial inoculated condition at Plant Pathology Division, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Barisal, Bangladesh. Out of 214 lentil lines/varieties, 22 lines were selected as resistant to Stemphylium botryosum in the first year screening program. In the second year out of 24 lines/varieties (including 2 check varieties), 3 lines namely BD-6002, BD-3837 and BD-3926 were selected as resistant to S. botryosum. In the third year selected lines/varieties were screened out under natural epiphytotic condition at two locations at the research field of RARS, BARI, Rahmatpur, Barisal and Fruit Research Station, BARI, Binodpur, Rajshahi. Out of 3 lentil lines and 2 check varieties (BARI Masur-1 and BARI Masur-7), two lines viz. BD-6002 and BD-3837 showed resistant reaction to stemphylium blight and higher yield (1628 Kg/ha and 1447 Kg/ha) both the locations.


The study assessed the quality and condition of student's hostel in Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. Stratified random sampling was used to select study sites (hostels) and systematic random sampling was used to identify the respondents (on campus students). The target population of students in the university were 9672 and a sample of 372 students (both males and females) was selected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the data analyses. The findings revealed that more than two thirds of the respondents were young between the ages of 15 - 25 years, who are experiencing new housing pathway from parental homes to on campus. It also revealed that more than two thirds of the respondents were living in overcrowded rooms as high as more than 6 persons due to presence of squatters. This has the implication of increasing pressure on the available facilities, which affects their living conditions. Data analysis shows that most of the facilities in the student's hostel are in good condition, which includes electricity supply, water supply, efficient waste disposal system, standby generator, security, fence, bathroom and toilets, fire fighting equipment and bed spaces. However, other facilities such as kitchenette, recreational area, drainage, laundry, privacy and writing desks were found to be in poor condition, while Information Communication Technology (ICT) facilities were found to be fair. Data analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the mean scores of condition of facilities among hostel blocks in the university (F = 4.256, (14, 235), p = 0.001). It is recommends thus; the University management should address the issue of squatters in the student's hostel in order to reduce the increasing pressure on the facilities. Equally, additional hostels should be provided either directly by the University or through the Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) arrangement in order to alleviate the shortage of bed spaces within the University Campus.


Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nurse managers leadership style effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction (Mudihanselage & Chamaru, 2015).The level of employees’ job satisfaction is directly related to the style of leadership they work under and access to structural empowerment. Effective leadership not only increases the satisfaction and productivity levels of team, but consequently leads to increased quality of patient care (Warshawsky, Lake, & Brandford, 2013).METHODS: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the influence of structural empowerment and resonant leadership on job satisfaction of registered nurses at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore Pakistan.RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the mean age of participants was 27.00 ± 3.22 years old, it was observed that mostly participants of the study was female. Mostly participant were unmarried 135(64%) while 76(36%) were married. The outcomes of this study recommended that resonant leaders are helpful in creating structurally empowering situations that influence on nurses job satisfaction.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that managers who emphasize transparency, balanced processing, self‐awareness, and high ethical standards also effectively increase nurses' perceptions of workplace empowerment, which in turn enhances their performance and job satisfaction. Work environments that provide open access to information, resources, support, and opportunities for learning and development both empower and enable nurses to accomplish their work.

Zone of Proximal Development[]

The interpretation of the term, ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ (ZPD) could be illustrated in a deeper context based on the authentic complexities of association between development and learning. An ordinary characterisation of the Zone of Proximal Development might not be as important as a seminal comprehension of the theoretical strategy could be in order to comprehend the ‘just right’ meaning of the term. An wider and clear view of the Zone of Proximal Development could be portrayed if the gist of Vygotsky’s theoretical creations, where the general notion of development is depicted, are minutely considered. Vygotsky has a strong position in support of a special kind of learning that is closely and largely related to a developmental function where the development transmits from the social level to the individual level; from the inter-psychological (people) level to the intra-psychological (individual) level. For a clear clarification about the Zone of Proximal Development, it is better to differentiate the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (its theoretical interconnection with other concepts) from the definition of the Zone of Proximal Development (its interconnection between learning and development). Also, there must be a vivid illustration of other psychologists’ notions about Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development as there are some great criticisms against Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development.The aim of this study is to sketch the definition of Vygotsky's (1896-1934) view of the Zone of Proximal Development with a special focus on evaluating the relation between social and individual dissimilarity in current learning capability (an already achieved level) and probability (the achievable level with the help of others).The objectives of this research are to make this definition of this term more vivid to the educationists and researchers by providing some more additional but completely related areas to the Zone of Proximal Development, e.g. authentic instances, fundamental beliefs about it, real essence, scaffolding, mediation, psychological tools, operation of this term in educational settings, ways of evaluating this term, comments of others educational psychologists about it, and appropriate sourcing. Finally, the goal of this research study is to ensure that more than one objective has been achieved through measurable and observable results that entirely serve the purpose of the aim of this research.

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