IJOART Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2013 Edition


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The Raw Materials of Bioethanol By Some Cassava Variety[]


About 6 kg until 7 kg of cassava usually used as the raw materials of one litre bioethanol. The Cellullose content, Moisture content and Total Sugar content of cassava, will influence the amount of cassava as the raw material for bioethanol respectively.. Fermentation and Sacharification process is two step of Bioethanol production will continue by fermentation process along 72 hours. There are many variety of cassava which are able to use as the raw materials of bioethanol. . In this research was examined several variety of cassava in laboratory scale which were , Umas Jaya-3, Kaserstaat, Caspro, and Malang 6. The result of the fermentation that is bioethanol content along 72 hours of fermentation process showed different concentration of bioethnol between Umas Jaya-3 , Kaserstaat, Malang -6 and Caspro respectively.


Survey of visualization techniques for very large network graphs using a case study[]


Novel approaches have been proposed for large network visualization. However, visualizing large networks can be quite challenging if not impossible. This is due to limitations of the screen, complexity of layout algorithms and limitations of human visual perception. Some networks are too large to hold in the memory of most desktops let alone visualize it. Even if a network fits in memory, a single iteration of a good layout algorithm like a force-directed layout can take quadratic time. In this paper, we survey available techniques for visual analysis of very large graphs.


The acid treatments of the Hß zeolite as the catalyst in the synthesis of ethyl tertiary butyl ether antiknock additive[]


Influences of acids treatments on the structure, properties and the catalytic performances of the Hß zeolite in the synthesis of ethyl tertiary butyl ether were investigated. The initial activities of catalysts treated with different acids exist maximum values with the increase of the acid concentration and have a little decrease, however, the stabilities and the stable activities of the catalysts were significantly improved, which is precisely advantages of the zeolite acid treatment. Stabilities of the treated catalysts decrease as the following order citric acid> acetic acid> hydrochloric acid. In order to make research on these changes clearly various characterizations were carried out. XRD results showed the hardly changed framework, the decrease of degree of crystallinity and the existence of the dealumination after acid treatments. Correlating to the activity reaults, it is also concluded that the tetragonal crystalline is beneficial for the activity. FTIR results verified the existence of the dealumination and implied the influences of the secondary building unit on the stability of the samples. XRF results verified the realumination and the necessity of the moderate n (Si)/n (Al) for the stability of the sample.


Christianity-its Impact Among The HMARS In North East India[]


The Hmar people belonged to the Kuki-Chin-Mizo group of the Tibeto-Burman and were scattered throughout North-East India. Before the advent of Christianity in this region, they practiced an animistic religion. The Hmar community remained almost segregated. There was little scope for mixing together with other people of the country. They were left alone to lead a life according to their own ways of life. The paper examines the process of transformation and changes taking place among the Hmar community with the advent of Christianity. The Hmar are also a recognized Scheduled Tribes of India.


Impact of VLSI Technology on Nanotechnology[]


This paper presents a detailed study of the present VLSI technological aspects, importance and their replacement or combination with the Nanotechnology in the VLSI world of silicon semiconductors. Here authors bring out the nanotechnology in Silicon world which invariably means shrinking geometry of CMOS devices to nano scale. This also refers to a new world of nanotechnology where chemists are working in manufacturing of carbon nanotubes , nano devices of various materials of nano dimensions without even knowing how this could change the whole world of Si and CMOS technology and the world we live in.


A Critical Evaluation of Different Methods of Recording Centric Jaw Relation of Completely Edentulous Individuals An In VIVO Study[]


The accurate recording and transfer of jaw relation records1 from the edentulous patient to the articulator is essential for the restoration of function, speech, facial appearance, and maintenance of the comfort to patient’s stomatognathic system. The patient’s maxillomandibular relationships are dynamic and changes have been observed as age advances.


Design and Fabrication of a Pump for Peristaltic Flow of variable viscosity fluids[]


Due to the widespread use of peristaltic pumps in the pharmaceutical industries, manufacturers are searching for new type of pumping machines, based on the mathematical models. Researchers have predicted the results of peristaltic transport in many applications mathematically and failed to interpret the results. One of the reasons is the difficulties faced in generation of peristaltic transportation of the fluid mechanically. This paper has made an effort to generate the design & characteristics of peristaltic transport of the fluid. The parameters identified in designing the pump are generation of constant contraction and expansion of the tube with small amplitudes, considerable pressure development in the fluid and flow characteristics. The fabricated model is different from existing conventional pumps while the characteristics of the pump being same.


Embadded Controler For Wire Less Informing Animal Health[]


Today we know that now how much the technology is going fast it can be or cannot be measurable, but in the world human being is great. Now days the technology of medicine will in very high like any problems happens to him he will immediately receive the best treatment & he cure very short time but we can think about the animals there are so many in the world without giving treatment they have been loosing their life with more pain why we not take care of all the animals in the world they have also life na? It used to maintain error of the animal & its staying, as well as temperature of the body, its sound , it is eating food or not and its condition its legs problem , stomach problem, foot & mouth diseases, and other harmful disises and also animal location. can be find using this module. If it the animal have any problem, directly information goes to the doctor according to him further treatment will be given & the animal is safe.


Effects of The Adoption of Extension Technologies On The Technical Efficiency of Maize Farmers in OYO State[]


This research work broadly examined the effects of adoption of extension technologies on the technical efficiency of maize farmers in Oyo state, Nigeria. The study is specific objectives are to examine the socio economic characteristic of the maize farmers, investigate the different maize extension technologies adopted by the respondents, determine the technical efficiency of the maize farmers and identify the constraints faced by the maize farmers during the adoption of maize extension technologies in the study area. The study employed the use of cross -sectional data from farm business survey conducted on a sample of 260 farmers from different local government areas of the study. The data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire and were later analyzed.


Preparation and characterizations of Soya Protein isolate films Coated with Palm Stearin and Modified with Antimicrobial agent Chitosan[]


The special protein isolate (aggregates’ is 396nm in size by Laser granulometry) based film from soya bean shows good thermo stability as it started degradation beyond 50°C where as the film blended with chitosan an antimicrobial agent. Incorporated with chitosan, protein isolate film further laminated with palm stearin shows even greater thermo stability as it has started degrading from 60°C.Another wonderful observation is that films made that Soya protein isolate control films do not show much thermo stability as it starts degradation at much lower temperature like 35°C as compared to chitosan incorporated protein isolate films further laminated with palm stearin . Micro structural study reported that edible films made from special protein isolate gives a homogenous and uniform pattern, along with compact structure, upper surface shows globular arrangement. The films when incorporated with Chitosan also reveals homogeneity and compactness but at higher concentration (>50%) roughness may be observed. When the concentration of Chitosan is increased beyond 15-20%, the water vapor permeability rate and total soluble matter is decreased, thus resulting in good moisture barrier properties. The Films incorporated with Chitosan showed good inhibition against pathogenic bacteria


Human Resource Management and Technology Transition for Firm Competitiveness in Nigeria’s telecommunication industry[]


This paper addresses human resource management technology transition as a key strategy in today’s competitive business environment focusing on the telecommunication industry in Nigeria. Our theoretical framework is based on previous Human Resource Management (HRM) and Human Resource Information System (HRIS) studies where the contributing role of HRIS to competitiveness is measured by the compliance and application level of its functions to HR functionalities. Copies of survey questionnaire for administration targeted at HR managers in the industry were sent to five corporate Headquarters of the different companies operating in Nigeria with a response rate of 61.5%. We found from this study that HRIS functions have a relationship with HRM functionalities; that the independent variables (strategic integration, forecasting and planning, human resources analysis, and communication and integration) have no relationship with human resource functionalities; and that the dependent variables (performance development, knowledge management, and records and compliance) which are dimensions of human resources information systems have a relationship with human resources functionalities. Human Resource Managers in Nigeria must acquire the new technological skills and competencies that will result in their emerging new role of business partners that is supportive of overall corporate strategy for competitiveness.


Conjugate Descent of Gradient Descent Radial Basis Function For Generalization of Feed Forward Neural Network[]


Multilayer feed-forward neural network trained with conventional gradient descent method of generalized delta learning rule is not conveniently exhibit the generalized behavior for the pattern mapping task or in pattern classification. This inadequacy of the generalized delta learning rule also exhibits in its conjugate descent or second derivative. The objective of this study is to analyze the performance of feed forward neural network for performing the generalized pattern classification task for the automated word recognition. The performance of feed forward neural network for this generalization is evaluated with gradient descent radial basis function feed-forward neural network architecture. Here in this paper we are proposing a novel method to improve the performance of Multi Layer feed-forward neural network for generalized pattern recognition task using second order gradient descent of Radial Basis Function i.e. Radial Basis Function and its Conjugate Descent.


Synthesis And Antimicrobial Activity of Quinoxaline Sulfonamide[]


Quinoxaline have become attractive target of extensive research due to its inherent properties and therapeutic uses. Quinoxaline finds many pharmacological activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antituberculer, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antitumor etc. The present study includes the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives of quinoxaline, by addition-elimination mechanism. All derivatives were characterized by TLC, IR, MS, 1HNMR.Quinoxaline sulfonamide derivatives were then subjected to antimicrobial screening against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that all sulfonamides derivatives showed more pronounced effect on the inhibition of growth, obtained in terms of MIC, against all the strains used as compared to plane quinoxaline derivatives.


Column Separation and Recovery of Hg2+ and Ni2+ from Admixture by Nitrated Biomass of Cicer arientinum.[]


The sieved biomass of Cicer arientinum has been converted in to cheap carbonaceous adsorbent by AR. Nitric acid treatment. This adsorbent exhibits a good sorption potential for heavy metals like Hg+2 and Ni+2 from their mixture. Present work deals with removal and recovery of heavy metals like Hg+2 and Ni+2 from their mixture and chemical regeneration of the adsorbent material. Particle size affects separation and recovery but only to certain extent 63 micron mesh particle when used for column packing there is maximum recovery of the metals. Hg2+ 90 to 96% and for the % recovery of Ni2+ ranges from 82 to 88%. Thus nitrated biomass of Cicer areintinum is cheap and abundant biomass, effectively applied for removal of Hg2+ and Ni2+ by column separation to minimize the water pollution.


Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Surgul Village of District Kohat, Khyber Paktunkhwa[]


Background: Leishmaniasis is a group of globally widespread parasitic diseases caused by different species of Leishmania, which infect a wide variety of mammals. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are two common causes of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan. Material and Methods: The current study was conducted to check the prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and to identify the leishmania parasites by using Microscopy and PCR in endemic areas of Surgul village of district Kohat. A total of 60 samples were collected from suspected Cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients with different age groups including both 25 male and 35 female patients. Results: Overall microscopic results showed 70% Prevalence in examined patient in which 76 % of the male patients and 65.71% of female patients were found with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis while these results further confirmed by PCR using RV1/RV2 primers for the extracted DNA. PCR results showed 80% in male while 71.43% in female. In age up to 15 years showed 78.95% followed by 87.50% in male and 72.73% in female microscopically while over all prevalence of CL detected by PCR was 84.21% followed by 87.50% in male and 81.82% in female population. Conclusion: It was concluded from the present work that male were much more infected with CL than female. The present study revealed that PCR is most sensitive than microscopy.


Integrated nutrient management by using bioinoculants in seedlings of tea (Camellia sinensis) under nursery[]


A nursery experiment was conducted to standardize the nutrient supply by integrated approach in tea. Five treatments each replicated four times were followed in this trial. Bioinoculants (BF) and/or inorganic fertilisers (IOF) were applied and growth and development of nursery grown BSS (biclonal seed stocks) seedling plants were monitored. During the first six months period of observation, the results indicated that the recommended dosage of inorganic fertilizers with bio inoculants provided significantly higher values of biometric characteristics in terms of stem diameter, number of leaves, biomass production followed by the 100 % recommended practice of IOF and 50% IOF + BF. After 12 months, it was noticed that 100 % IOF had an edge over the other treatments followed by 50 % IOF + BF in most of the biometric parameters.


A Simple Analytical Model For Estimating Bottom Hole Pressure In Gas Condensate Wells[]


The pressure parameter is a very important fluid property in reservoir engineering computations. The success of pressure transient analysis however, often depends on the accurate measurement or estimation of the bottom hole pressure. Knowledge of how gas condensate and mixture flow simultaneously in vertical pipe is necessary. A simple mathematical model was used to stimulate multiphase system flow from single phase flow and the corresponding mixing rule to the fluid flow pattern of gas condensate was developed that incorporates the effects of slippage at the gas-liquid interface. This method was better for estimating the bottom hole pressure of gas condensate wells than the Sukkar and Cornell in terms of deviation


Beta and Gamma Families in Kummer Distribution involving Hermitian Positive Definite Matrix[]


The Kummer-Beta and kummer-Gamma families of distributions are defined by the density functions involving hermition positive definite matrix


Lady Lazarus: The Odyssey of a Woman from Existential Angst to Unrivalled Triumph[]


Sylvia Plath was an American poet whose name defies all boundaries and straddles worldwide as a Metaphor for Rhythmic, Performative poetry laden with references of her Personal Angst, Holocaust and Feminism. She possesses the magical power of translating her personal hurt into a public spectacle, creating a Phantasmagoria before our minds’ eye. Her poem Lady Lazarus is charged with some very powerful imagery and a defiance of rational structures. It unleashes not only her agony at personal level but also portrays the woes of women at large and of the Holocaust victims. She displays the mythopoeic powers in her extension of the myth of Lazarus. Plath introduces the female counterpart of Lazarus i.e. Lady Lazarus who has this gift of being reborn and revolting against the torment of men, and all tormentors at large.


Approximating Common Fixed Points of Three Asymptotically Quasi-nonexpansive Mappings In Banach Spaces[]


In this paper we have studied necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence of Ishikawa-type iterative sequences to a common fixed point of the mappings defined on a nonempty closed convex subset of a Banach space. Sequences we have considered involving three asymptotically quasi-non expansive mappings


Software Testing and improvement (STI) approach[]


Software Testing and Improvement (STI) approach is a new approach of testing in which testing and improvement of product goes parallel. This approach redefines the testing process by adding software improvement process to it.


Effect of high strength concrete intersecting beam on bond behaviour at the joint[]


At the joint of intersecting beams, bending of one beam, affects the bond strength of the intersecting beam. The bond strength of intersecting beams decreases due to magnification of tangential/circumferential tensile bond stress. Experimentation was carried out to study the bond behaviour at the joint of high strength concrete intersecting beams. High strength concrete beams were casted for this purpose. These were divided into different sets. Each set consisted of three beams, two intersecting and one control. All the beams were instrumented with steel and concrete strain gauges and linear variable displacement transducers. The results of the experimentation showed that at the joint of intersecting beams, bond strength of primary beam reduced as compared to control beam due to flexural action of secondary beam. This reduction in bond strength of primary beam was 11 to 20% as compared to control beam. It necessitates the provision of bond improving measures at the joint of high strength concrete intersecting beams.


Speed Control Methods For Field Oriented Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive[]


Model Reference Adaptive Fuzzy Controller for PMSM is proposed in which the system output tracks very closely the reference model even with increasing inertia, augmented stator resistance and load variations. In Model Reference Adaptive Fuzzy Controller, a direct fuzzy logic controller is employed as the main controller and model reference based fuzzy logic controller as the adaptation controller.


Optimum Power Evacuation System Planning of MalwaThermal Power Station (Stage –II, 2x660MW)[]


In this paper work an excise has been done to design evacuation system for the second phase of Malwa thermal power substation that is 1200MW power in the Madhya Pradesh (M.P) system. there are three alternative routs of transmission system for absorption of 1200 MW addition powers generated at Malwa have been studied. The basic Grid code requirements as per Madhya Pradesh Electricity Regulation Commission (MPERC) have been adopted to ensure that the voltages & reactive flows are with in the specified limits of grid code. In order to meet the criteria framed by Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has been adopted. Once the projections are firmed up for each alternative, losses for each alternative have been workout and on the basis of transmission losses & prediction had been made the most efficient network to evacuate the power for the second phase (2 x 600 MW).


Livelihood Security of Mgnrega-an Analysis[]


Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), is the flagship programme of the Government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. The Act aims at enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Mahatma Gandhi NREGA is the first ever law internationally that guarantees wage employment at an unprecedented scale. The primary objective of the Act is augmenting wage employment and its auxiliary objective is strengthening natural resource management through works that address causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation and soil erosion and so encourage sustainable development. The process outcomes include strengthening grass-root processes of democracy and infusing transparency and accountability in governance.


Study on Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images[]


This work proposes a Secure and authenticated discrete reversible data hiding in cipher images deals with security and authentication. In the first phase, a content owner encrypts the original uncompressed image using an encryption key. Then, a data hider may compress the least significant bits of the encrypted image using a data hiding key to create a sparse space to accommodate some additional data. With an encrypted image containing additional data, if a receiver has the data hiding key, receiver can extract the additional data though receiver does not know the image content. If the receiver has the encryption key, can decrypt the received data to obtain an image similar to the original one. If the receiver has both the data hiding key and the encryption key, can extract the additional data and recover the original content.


The Importance of Trust in The Development of Entrepreneurship[]


The very basis of every entrepreneurial activity is trust since these entrepreneurs’ deals with people. However, one of the most challenging, if not the most difficult piece of the business development puzzle, is trust. Trust is rarely tied to a product or service but it is facilitated by the person interacting with the customer and other partners in the business. Trust serves as a lens for interpreting behaviour and as a basis for a person’s decisions making. The goal is to examine the importance of trust in the development and growth of entrepreneurship. It investigates the level of trust needed to facilitate entrepreneurship development. This research was carried out to determine and clarify to what extent entrepreneurs trust different people and institutions. The outcome revealed that for entrepreneurship to develop there is the need for some level of trusted relationships.



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