IJOART Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Edition


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Preliminary Assessment of Water Quality Conditions of Abandoned Mine Paddock for Conversion into a Micro Irrigation Facility[]


This paper explores the possibility of converting an abandoned dredged mine paddock into a micro-irrigation facility by assessing the water quality conditions of nine surface water sampling points created by the operations of defunct dredged gold mine operations more than a decade ago. The concentrations of twenty water quality parameters (major ions, physicochemical, trace metals and fecal coliform bacteria) were determined and compared with threshold values to evaluate the suitability of the paddocks for irrigation of crops and the watering of livestock. The prevailing legal framework concerning water resources management in Ghana as well as the geophysical conditions of the studied sites was favorable for the development of the abandoned dredged gold mine paddocks into a micro-irrigation facility. But the apparent constraint is the observed temperature difference between the control point Abudusu Upstream (AB1) and Abudusu Midstream (AB2-Abandoned Mine Paddock) that is above the recommended guideline value of 3 °C. The nutrient loading and the major ion concentration of the studied sites were moderate; the waters were therefore slightly eutrophic. These conditions will enhance the productivity of crops irrigated with this water.


Determination of Essential Elemental Concentration Profile in Ghanaian Shea (Vitellaria Paradoxa L) Fruit Pulp using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis[]


Studies have shown that the Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa L) tree is an important ecological, nutritional and socio-economic re-source for upgrading the standard of living of the indigenous population in the Sub - Sahelian region of Ghana. However, little is known about the essential elements concentration profile of the widely- consumed fruit pulp of this tree. The aim of this study therefore was to ascertain the essential elements present in the Shea fruit pulps as well as other contaminants using the well – established Instrumental Neutron Activation Analytical Technique. All fresh Shea fruit pulps samples contain high concentrations of K, Ca and Mg with the rest being Cl Na, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu and Fe which were also found in significant amounts. Sb and As were found in traces in some of the samples. This data is paramount in the estimation of essential minerals dietary intake for humans as well as the evaluation of their exposure to toxic elements.


PVP: Peer-to-Peer Video on-Demand Streaming with Peer Cache Adaption[]


Interactive Video on-Demand Systems based on the internet has long been the target of new internet business on realizing the large scale user base. Researches have shown that using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) to provide Video on-Demand (VoD) service can support large scale users as well as reduce server's bandwidth cost. P2P VoD streaming using Peer Cache Adaption (PCA): PVP presents a novel P2P VoD streaming system that determines each peer's cache capacity adaptively according to the server's upload bandwidth constraint. The packet transfer rate will be a constant when number of nodes increases, since each peer acts as a temporary server for data transfer. As a result of high packet transfer rate downloading speed can be improved. Since the number of cache for each video is proportional to its popularity, upload load will be the same for each peer and fairness between download and upload amounts can be achieved. PVP is evaluated and the Server Bandwidth Rate is found to be a constant after a particular packet transfer rate when compared to µTorrent.


Adsorption Studies of Co(II) and U(II) on Citrus Fruits Peels[]


Adsorption of a solute from solution on to a solid adsorbent in a solution is treat differently than corresponding adsorption of gases on solids. The surface of solid has a tendency to attract and hold the molecules of gas or liquid with which is comes in contact. This phenomenon of surface is known as adsorption.


Comparative study of antibacterial activity of ripen and unripen Indigenous Citrus union of Assam, India[]


Citrus fruits are acidic fruits of family Rutaceae. They contain healthy nutritional content that are important for the body. Other than nutritional content they also have antioxidant, antimicrobial, insect repellent, medicinal and many other properties. Microorganisms are responsible for many of the diseases. They are present everywhere in the environment. Different synthetic drugs are available in the market which can be used against microbes. But, microorganims become resistant to the available drugs. Alternative medicine or biocompounds are required which can replace the function of synthetic drugs. Citrus in different forms i.e extract in different solvents have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties. The extract of simple distilled water also has significant result. Citrus is eaten mainly in ripen form. Citrus juice may be consumed directly after extraction of the juice. This study was performed to to check the antimicrobial activity of juice in ripen form. Unripen juices were also study to compare the activity with the ripen juices. Significant result was found in both the cases.


The Contribution of Effective Communication System in the Management of Disaster in Nigeria[]


This study is on the contribution of effective communication system in the management of disaster in Nigeria. The method of data collection used in this study was field survey method; this involved the use of questionnaire. The study covers the four communities affected by the 2012 flooding in Anambra East-Nigeria. The result of the analysis showed that awareness during the disaster 2012 did not contribute significantly to the management of the disaster. Also, it was observed that the use of traditional communication system during the 2012 disaster did not contribute to the management of the disaster. In addition, the feedback system and level of involvement in the affected communities did not contribute to the management of the disaster. From the result of the analysis the present study concluded that early warnings can only be effective to the extent to which the messages are adapted to the environment or community. Also, there is the need for the development of sustainable community based disaster management system which will accord a place to traditional communication systems. The development of local systems for dissemination of warning messages is crucial for effective disaster management in communities. The process of communication should be horizontal, that is, a two-way flow of communication.


Photolysis of Baylis-Hillman Acetates: Homolytic vs. Heterolytic Cleavage[]


Photochemical behaviour of Baylis-Hillman (BH) acetates were studied in presence of 254 nm irradiation. It was found that they underwent C-O bond cleavage to give rise to products. Analysis of the products showed that the bond cleavage is homolytic in nature. This homolytic cleavage results in formation of radical pair which may undergo decarboxylation followed by radical-radical coupling or photo rearrangement to give products.


VERBAL CONCEPT LEARNING : A FUNCTION OF INTELLIGENCE,AND TASK COMPLETION[]


The purpose of the study was to throw light on the nature of verbal concept learning by systematically studying the effect of subjects * independent variables on performance. The investigation attempted to know the effects of intelligence, task-complexity and instruction on performance in verbal concept learning. A 2*2*2 factorial experiment with equal replications was used. For each intelligence level considered separately, it was a randomized group design. The results showed that intelligence * task, intelligence * instruction and task * instruction effects on performance were significant. The triple interaction effects on performance were not significant.


Enhancement of CDMA system using Antenna Arrays and Power Control Error in a Multipath Fading Environment[]


The paper provides a new analytical expression for the outage and bit-error probability (BEP) of CDMA systems. We analyze the uplink outage capacity improvements in CDMA systems using receive antenna array and power control schemes that can track multipath fading. These expressions account for adverse effects such as path loss (L), large-scale fading (shadowing), small-scale fading (Rayleigh fading), and co-channel interference (CCI), as well as for correcting mechanisms such as power control error (compensates for path loss and shadowing) and spatial diversity (mitigates against Rayleigh fading). IN wireless direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS/CDMA) systems, multiple access interference (MAI) and multipath fading are two major channel impairments that degrade system performance. In this paper, we analyze the outage capacity improvements that can be achieved by combating these undesired effects through the use of antenna arrays. Employing antenna arrays at the receiver enables signal reception through multiple independent channels. The channel is modeled as slowly varying Nakagami fading with lognormal shadowing and path loss. The use of antenna arrays helps improve the systems performance by increasing channel capacity and spectrum efficiency, extending range coverage, tailoring array shape, steering multiple antennas to track many mobiles, and electronically compensating for the aperture distortion. It also reduces multipath fading, co-channel interference, system complexity and cost, bit-error rate (BER), and outage probability. We show that by controlling the power level of a user at the output of the diversity combiner and imposing the condition that a user does not transmit when in a deep fade; the average intercell interference level of the system is significantly reduced. As a result of this reduction, we demonstrate analytically that the outage capacity of the system is improved more than linearly with increasing number of antenna elements.


A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PRE-DEGREE AND UNIVERSITY MATRICULATION EXAMINATION (UME) CLASSES IN A UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: A DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS APPROACH[]


In this paper, discriminant analysis was used to compare the performance of students who gained admission into the University system through Pre-degree programme and those who passed through the University matriculation examination (UME). The discriminant linear function which discriminate between the two groups better than any other linear function was employed. It was observed that there is no difference in the performance of UME and Pre-degree students on the average at 5% level of significance. This result was further confirmed with the used of F-transformation of Hotelling's T2 Statistic.


Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Cyst- A Case Report on Its Surgical Management and Chances of Recurrence[]


The authors report a rare case of Lingual thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) which has been treated by the technique of intraoral wide-base excision and the authors also review the embryology, diagnosis and treatment options of Lingual TGDC. The patient was operated upon by intraoral route and the cyst was excised with a wide margin. There has been recurrence in the past 8 month follow-up even after meticulous removal. The authors urge a review of the practice of excision of Lingual TGDC.


Effect of hormones on some biochemical composition of Anabas testudineus[]


Treatment of testosterone and L-thyroxine bring about significant increase in water content as compared to control while progesterone and hydrocortisone failed to bring any significant change in water content .Protein content showed higher values in testosterone and lower values in hydrocortisone and L-thyroxine treated group as compared to control. Lipid showed lower and higher values respectively in testosterone & L-thyroxine treated group as compared to control. Corbohydrate content showed lower values after the treatment of testosterone & L-thyroxine as compared to control. Ash content showed lower values in all the hormone treated animals as compared to control.


An expressive study of Mushroom poisoning cases in Lakhimpur district of Assam[]


Now a day Mushroom poisoning have become a most important problem in diverse region of India with a greater extent in different location of Assam.A descriptive study of mushroom poisoning cases were conducted in different location of Lakhimpur district of Assam from 2011 onwards. Stool samples were collected in a carry blair media from those patients suspected to be afflicted with the complain of fever, headache, stomach pain or loose watery stool after taking mushroom were enrolled in the study. Mixed growth of E. Coli & Staphylococcus aureus was found in two nos of them out of total Sixty eight patients and rest are showed normal growth of E coli. All patients developed above symptoms after 2-3 hours of taking wild mushroom so it was confirmed as the source of infection.74% of the affected patients showed abnormal liver function test (LFT) and kidney function test. All the age group and both the sexes were affected. Case fatality rate was higher in Bihpuria block. Most nos of mushroom poisoning cases were reported from Bihpuria and Dhalpur BPHC.


Population Dynamics And Seasonal Incidence of Liriomyza Huidobrensis (Blanchard)(Diptera:Agromyzidae) on Onion Vegetable In Manipur[]


The present study embodies population dynamics and the seasonal incidence of insect pest, Liriomyza huidrobrensis (Blanchard) on onion plantation in Manipur during the period from January 2011- June 2013. This period is subdivided in to 5 parts namely 1. January to June 2011, 2. July to December 2011, 3. January to June 2012, 4. July to December 2012 and 5. January to June 2013. The observation has been done month-wise throughout the period and then these are clustered for six month each. The population of insect pest and percentage of infestation on the vegetable have been recorded month wise but calculated as mean for every subdivision in order to get easy calculation. Added parameters for the study during the period are altitude (780m), temperature ( 30 - 34.10), relative humidity (60-92% )and rainfall (1200 -1500mm / annum). The Highest seasonal incidence has been recorded during March(30.94%) in every year and percentage of infestation is also highest during March (85.19%). The minimum incidence has been recorded during January (0.66%) and minimum Infestation has also been recorded during January (6.33%) every year.


Effect of dates of sowing on incidence and severity of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus and Cercospora Leaf spot of mungbean[]


An experiment was conducted at Regional Pulses Research Station, BARI, Madaripur during 2011 in order to study the effect of dates of sowing on the incidence and severity of diseases and yield of Mungbean. Results revealed that the disease incidence of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) of six varieties/lines, BMXK2 03000, BMXK2 03005-4 and BARImung-6 showed highly resistance (HR), resistant (R) and resistant to moderately resistant reaction, at the sowing time of January 15, February 01-15 and April 01 respectively. In, sowing BMXK2 03005-4 and BARImung-6 showed moderately resistance (MR). But in MYMV disease severity BMXK2 03005-4 and BARImung-6 showed 1 scoring scale starting from January 15 to March 15 sowing. In April 01, sowing disease severity of BMXK2 03005-4 and BARImung-6 showed 3 scoring scale. In case of CLS, BMXK2 03005-4 and BARImung-6 showed 1 scoring scale from January 15 to February 01 sowing. February 15 to April 01, sowing showed 2 scoring scale. The yield performance ranged from 681.30 kg/ha to 2131.00 kg/ha while the highest (2131.00 kg/ha) yield was found in S4XE4 i.e. March 01, 2011 sowing with BMXK2-030005-4. The lowest (681.3 kg/ha) yield was found in S6E3 i.e. April 01, 2011 sowing with BMXK2-03000 line. A strong correlation was obtained the incidence of MYMV and yield. It means that with the increase of incidence of MYMV (%), yield of mungbean decreased. The correlation coefficient (r) was - 0.797** and the contribution of the regression (R2 = 0.6355) indicate that 63.55% yield to mungbean would be affected by MYMV infection.


16-Bit RISC Processor Design for Convolution Application[]


In this project, we propose a 16-bit non-pipelined RISC processor, which is used for signal processing applications. The processor consists of the blocks, namely, program counter, clock control unit, ALU, IDU and registers. Advantageous architectural modifications have been made in the incremented circuit used in program counter and carry select adder unit of the ALU in the RISC CPU core. Furthermore, a high speed and low power modified modifies multiplier has been designed and introduced in the design of ALU. The RISC processor has been designed for executing 27-instruction set. It is expandable up to 32 instructions, based on the user requirements.


Environmental carbon trading scenario in India: A Global issue of 21 st Century: A Review[]


The Climate change and environmental conservation is the main issues of this century. India is the second largest in population, fourth largest in energy consumption and third largest in green house producer and burns ten folds fuel wood as compare to United State. To control these emissions on the global scale the environmental carbon trading practices are done on the basis of the carbon credits earned. In India the Coal fired power generation is the biggest polluter and the biggest opportunity for emission reduction and hence can be the biggest carbon credits producers. Presently, next to china India is generating the highest number of carbon credits in the world. In comparison to the developed nations the carbon emission level in India is much less. This provides enough opportunities for its industries to produce carbon units and harness benefits out of its trading. India's average annual CERs (Certified Emission Reduction) stand at 12.6% or 11.5 million which can goes up to 25 %.


Eigen Values For Signed Brauer Algebra[]


This paper determines the eigenvalues and eigenspaces of certain symmetric matrices T_(m,k) ?(x)?^([?]) for some values of m and k. For each m,k signed partial l-factor, the matrix T_(m,k) ?(x)?^([?]) with entries <.> which gives a complete structure of signed Brauer algebra S_f^((x) ).


Effect of Purity Of Cadmium Iodide Crystals On Physical Properties[]


Cadmium iodide crystals are polytypic in nature. Pure single crystals of cadmium iodide are grown by zone refining technique. After passing twenty five zones pure and single crystals of CdI2 are grown. Resistivity, conductivity , dielectric constant and band gap of cadmium iodide are measured after 8th,15th and 25th Zone passes. From this study it is concluded that resistivity, dielectric constant and band gap decreases after each zone passes while conductivity increases ,because presence of stacking faults in impure crystal.


Dynamic Efficient Prediction Approach for Lossless Image Compression []


This paper attempts to predict the high frequency structural components from the grayscale image using dynamic efficient prediction approach as we know the major challenge in image compression is to efficiently represent and encode high-frequency image structure components, such as edges, patterns, and textures. Therefore it is important to learn image structure and adjust the image representation and prediction scheme in an adaptive manner. The idea behind the proposed prediction approach is taken from motion prediction in video coding, attempting to find an optimal prediction of structure components within the previously encoded image regions. We find that this prediction approach is efficient for image regions with significant structure components with respect to parameters as compression ratio, bit rate as compared to CALIC (Context-based adaptive lossless image coding).


Evaluatingmutual Fund Schemes In An Indian Marketto Encorage The Investors Interest[]


Mutual funds are one of the most favored investment routes for the small and medium investors across the world. It provides opportunities for investors to participate in the capital market without assuming a very high degree of risk. An important principle of investment in capital market is that do not put all the eggs in one basket that is diversification. However, a mutual fund pools together the savings of such investors and invests the same in the capital market and passes the benefits to the investors.


Survey of Swarm Intelligence Inspired Routing Algorithms and Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols[]


AntHocNet is based on Ant Colony Optimization technique. It is a hybrid algorithm that combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance process. The reactive route setup is carried out at the start of a communication session or whenever the source of a current session has no more routing information available for the destination. The proactive route maintenance is run for the entire duration of the session [1]. Its aim is to keep information about existing routes up to date and explore new routes. In this paper survey of AntHocNet with the Ad hoc On demand distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol, TORA (Temporarily Ordered Routing Algorithm), DSDV (Destination Sequence Distance Vector) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is compared. Swarm Intelligence inspired networks are one engineering field which has many concepts in biology and hence the solutions of biology can be used to solve the problems of computer networks.


Optical Characterization of the (Cd-Zn)S:CdCl2 Thin Film Deposited by CBD Method[]


Thin films of (Cd-Zn)S:CdCl2 were deposited on glass substrates at 60°C for 60 minutes by Chemically Bath Deposition Method. The absorption coefficient (α) was determined from the absorption and transmission using (uv-vis spectrophotometer) at a normal incident of light in the wavelength of range (400-1000)nm. Using the relationship (αhν)2 against һv, we find that the films have energy gap between (2.9ev-3.1ev) and ( α≥104 cm-1) means the direct type of transmission, also we calculate (Refractive index , Extinction coefficient , real Dielectric constant, Imaging Dielectric constant). The dispersion parameters such as E0 (single oscillator energy) and Ed (dispersive energy) have been discussed in terms of the Wemple-DiDomenico single-oscillator model. The values obtained by this method are suitable for many scientific studies and technological applications, such as gas sensors, heat mirrors, transparent electrodes, solar cells and piezoelectric devices.



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