IJOART Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2013 Edition


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Skeletonization of Image Patterns using Medial Axis Transform[]


The skeleton of an image object is a powerful tool in order to reduce the storage sace when working online. This enebles the faster testing of image analysis algoritms. The medial axis of 2-D image patterns provides a conceptual design base, with transition to a detailed design occurring when the radius function is added to the medial axis or surface. To make such a design tool practicable, however, it is essential to be able to convert from an MAT format to a boundary representation of an object. The medial axis of an image pattern is the loci of all inscribed disks that touch two or more boundary points without crossing any of the boundaries. The medial axis transform (MAT) is a powerful representation for objects with inherent symmetry or near-symmetry.


Learning styles in an asynchronous e-learning environment[]


Asynchronous e-learning is one of the modes of learning environment that is including some characteristics of regular learning environment. The main purpose of the current research is to ascertain learning styles of students and their differences based on Academic Performance and Age Groups. Synchronous or asynchronies learner test and the Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory (KLSI 3.1) were used to identify differences among the learning styles of 343 asynchronous students from virtual universities in Tehran that categorized in three different age groups and academic performance. The sample selected by multi-stage random sampling. Researchers conducted Kruskal-Wallis test for differences in students learning styles based on age groups, have revealed significant statistical difference (Chi-square ( ) =11.849, df=2, p=.003<.05=a.) between learning styles and age groups of students. Researchers also used Mann-Whitney U as Post Hoc which should be conducted between each two groups. The Kruskal Wallis Test and Mann-Whitney U used as the statistical method. The results of conducted Kruskal-Wallis test indicated (Chi-square ( ) =5.246 while df =2, p=.073>0.05=a) revealed no significant statistical difference between learning styles and academic performance of students.


Women in Peace Keeping[]


Conflict occurs globally everyday impacting lives, countries, and slowing economic productive growth and safe wellbeing. In 1945, the United Nations founded an international organization comprised of nations of the world with the purpose to promote peace, security, and economic development. Since WWII, women’s roles within the U.S. and world society have transformed. This paper will examine women’s roles in logistics support for peace keeping missions, the possible barriers women encounter, as well as identifying current practices that hinder and/or promote the pool of female candidates.


Man’s Motivation Visions[]


This paper looks at a comparison made between Eric Smith and a leader that have had the opportunity of working closely, explaining each man’s and motivations for their respective visions. Additionally, each man’s communication style is to be described, as well as, its’ effectiveness with subordinates. The paper will explain how each man’s vision is purposeful, understandable, believable, and measureable. Finally, the paper will present the model of preference if asked to lead a district.


Remote Sensing Technology And Its Applications[]


Remote Sensing is defined as the science and technology, by which the characteristics of objects of interest can be identified, measured or analyzed the characteristics without direct contact. Electro-magnetic radiation which is reflected or emitted from an object is the usual source of remote sensing data. However any media such as gravity or magnetic fields can be utilized in remote sensing. A device to detect the electro-magnetic radiation reflected or emitted from an object is called a “remote sensor” or “sensor”. Cameras or scanners are examples of remote sensors. A vehicle to carry the sensor is called a “platform”. Aircraft or satellites are used as platforms. The applications of remote sensing include geology and mineral exploration, oceanography, agriculture, forestry, land degradation, environmental monitoring and so on. This paper presents an overview of remote sensing, its types and applications.


FPGA based complex test pattern generation for high speed fault diagnosis in memory blocks[]


The memory blocks testing is a separate testing procedure followed in VLSI testing. The memory blocks testing involves writing a specific bit sequences in the memory locations and reading them again. This type of test is called March test. For example the March C- test has the following test pattern. However no test setup is developed so far for testing the memory blocks inside the FPGA. The BRAM blocks of FPGA are designed to work at much higher frequency than the FPGA core logic. Hence testing the BRAMs at higher speed is essential. Hence the proposed work develops a memory testing tool based on March tests for FPGA based BRAM (block RAM testing). A PC based GUI tool shall send command to FPGA using serial port for selecting the type of test. The FPGA core gets the command through UART and performs the appropriate and sends the test report back to PC.


Studies on Magnetoelectric Effect of Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4/BaTiO3 ME Composite[]


The piezomagnetic-ferrite and piezoelectric-ferroelectric Magnetoelectric ME composites with composition (1-x)Ni0.5Cu0.3Zn0.2Fe2O4+ (x) BaTiO3 in which x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mol were prepared by conventional solid state reaction. The presence of constituent phases in the composites was confirmed by x-ray diffraction studies. In order to study the resistivity of composites it is measured in temperature range 300K to 800K. It is found that resistivity increases with increase in ferroelectric content in the composites. ME voltage coefficient was measured as function of applied dc magnetic field and variation in ME response has been explained in terms of the content of piezoelectric phase and the intensity of applied magnetic field. The magnetoelectric properties of these composites depend on the ferrite content, ferroelectric content and resistivity of constituent component of composites. The ME Voltage coefficient increases with increase in ferroelectric content in composites. The maximum ME voltage coefficient of 141mV/cm Oe was observed for composite with x=0.80.


Despite Strong FII INFLOW; Rupee Kept On Depreciating Till August 2013[]


In India greater emphasis has been given to the foreign capital, this not only increases the productivity and the efficiency of labour but also helps to maintain adequate foreign exchange reserve. After globalization of Indian economy foreign investment in India have grown enormously with the results of minimization of trade barriers, strengthening the economy, flexible exchange rates etc. This paper seeks to explain FII inflows since 2000 to 2013, behaviour after the announcement of QE-II. In particular, this paper tries to establish whether inflows in the form of net Foreign Institutional Investments (FIIs) into India increased after 2010. Despite FII increase Indian currency kept on depreciating till August 2013. The rest of the paper is organized right from starting with the introduction, pattern of FII inflow, history about rupee’s journey since independence and reasons for its depreciation. Tools of analysis, data, and empirical evidences are discussed. After findings article concludes the paper.


Modification of Isotactic Polypropylene Films (IPP) Through Ar8+ Ions Induced Grafting of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate (2-HEMA)[]


The present work is part of a systematic study that involves grafting of different monomers on different polymeric substrates using low energy ions. Low energy ion irradiated Ar8+ ion irradiation was explored as a means of forming chemically active sites on the surface of IPP films. The IPP was irradiated by Ar8+ ions having energy of 1.2 MeV with varying fluence from 1x1012 ions/cm2 to 5x1013 ions/cm2. The irradiated IPP was grafted by 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate (HEMA). The grafting yields were determined by weight measurements as a function of ion fluence, grafting time, temperature and monomer concentration. The grafted films were analyzed using FTIR, SEM and AFM. All these measurements suggest that the HEMA was grafted onto Ar8+ ion irradiated film.


Contemporary Social Position Of Widowhood Among Rural And Urban Area Special Reference To Dindigul District[]


Across Indian societies, women continue to struggle for gender equality and women’s rights issues. Particularly, Widows in India are facing a lot of problems and hardships in the family and society because of traditional norms, cultural practices and beliefs in the society. In the patriarchal Hindu society in which women derive their status from their husbands, widows have always been regarded as symbols of misfortune, and their presence was thought to be inauspicious at happy occasions. They were forced to withdraw completely from the social life of the community and were made to follow a severe discipline which made their existence a virtual social death. Efforts were made during the early colonial period to work toward reforms to improve the condition of widows in India. Yet, glaring gender discrimination exists in India over the centuries. Women, particularly widows in India are the victims of social stigma. Discrimination of widows is a common phenomenon which is deep rooted in the traditional values and beliefs of the community. Widows are found to have abundance of problems all over the world due to the doctrine of patriarchy and social debasement. Among the widows, the most vulnerable groups are those who have been living alone or staying with unmarried children. Some of the major problems they face are, responsibility of child-bearing, lack of companionship, violence against widows, hindrances in remarriage, control over sexuality, victimization, and psycho-social adjustment with her own family and society. In all the developing countries, millions of widows and their children live in the condition of acute insecurity, deprivation and violence. Even though we have Civil laws of inheritance, customary laws relating to marriage and inheritance, land ownership and child custody there exists is a large gap between the legal measures and practices due to the rigid patriarchal attitude towards women.


Falling Standard of Engineering Education in Nigeria- Causes and suggestions[]


A nation’s growth can be hinged on the functionality of the infrastructure, which is a direct index of efficiency of the human and material resources and invested capital. The bulk of the maintenance and development are direct duties of engineering graduate who are always criticized when failure occurred. Increased rate of failure in engineering infrastructure in Nigeria within the walls of economic reforms called for examining the status of engineering education in the country. The approaches used in carrying out the study include review of engineering education in Nigeria, appraisal of government policies, and use of structured questionnaires to determine the causes and remedy for falling standard of engineering education in Nigeria. This paper concluded that the training of engineering graduates are deficient and suggested the establishment of post graduate college of Engineering as a strategy to fulfill the required training. The advantages of this approach include improved training, reliability and reduction in failure of infrastructure and international acceptability.


Character Identification Using Graph Mathcing Algorithm[]


The main aim of the project is to design “Character Identification Using Graph Matching Algorithm”. Automatic face identification of characters in movies has drawn significant research interests and led to many interesting applications. It is a challenging problem due to the huge variation in the appearance of each character. Although existing methods demonstrate promising results in clean environment, the performances are limited in complex movie scenes due to the noises generated during the face tracking and face clustering process. In this paper we present two schemes of global face-name matching based framework for robust character identification. The contributions of this work include the following. 1) A noise insensitive character relationship representation is incorporated. 2) We introduce an edit operation based graph matching algorithm. 3) Complex character changes are handled by simultaneously graph partition and graph matching. 4) Beyond existing character identification approaches, we further perform an in-depth sensitivity analysis by introducing two types of simulated noises. The proposed schemes demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on movie character identification in various genres of movies.


Stable And Accurate Predictive Models And Integration Of Data Warehousing, Data Mining And Database Technologies With New Patterns []


Data Mining and Warehousing deals with discovering hidden data and unexpected patterns and rules in large database. It can bring significant gains to organizations. This sort of process implies a lot of computational power, memory and disk I/O, which can only be provided by distributed and parallel systems. This paper provides a comprehensive compilation of knowledge covering state-of-the-art developments and research, as well as current innovative activities in data warehousing and mining, focusing on the integration between the fields of data warehousing and data mining, with emphasis on the applicability to real world problems. We present a discussion of how database technology can be integrated to data mining techniques. Finally, we also point out several ad-vantages of addressing data consuming activities through a tight integration of a distributed and parallel database server and data mining techniques.


How To Contain Ethical Misdeeds And Corruption[]


In this fast changing world, people are becoming power-centric. Their insatiable lust for power of all sorts and unending desires make them focus on short-run to acquire power by whatever means. Such people with limited rationality often forget to do what would be best for them and for others in the long-run. This article elaborates on factors, such as individual, organizational and environmental factors collectively responsible for the growing phenomenon of ethical misdeeds and corruption which is detrimental to peace equity, freedom and justice. It is firmly believed that there is need to launch frontal attack on corruption by initiating measures as suggested in this article to contain corruption thus enabling formation of an ethical society which is necessary for sustainability.


On Ishikawa Iteration Process For Asymptotically Quasi-nonexpansive Mappings With An Error Of Rank-03[]


In this paper, we study the convergence of the sequence of asymptotically quasi- nonexpansive mappings of rank three with errors for fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in Uniformly Convex Banach spaces. Our results extend and improve some known recent results.


Early Universe Was Highly Frozen?[]


A scientific research focused in this article that the Cosmo universe have definite origin and shape. The current cosmological theories focus that the Universe began with heavily exploded star dust particles deriving heavy “heat energy” from the star dust origin.


School Management: Characteristics of Effective Principal[]


Research shows that managing school is like managing a state. So, the school principal must be politician, economist, psychologist and sociologist. Culture, ethnicity, gender and religion of the school population may diverse and customers of the school require satisfying their needs. This paper of characteristics of effective principal discusses how perfect school principals look like. There are nine self-assessment tips that principals can measure themselves. I derived these nine tips from the nine alphabet letters that the word principal consists of. Each alphabet letter of the common word given to school leader stands for good jobs required to be fulfilled by the principal. Principals will understand that their task is unique and require extra knowledge and standards to apply it. After reading books and articles wrote by different scholars, I noted that leadership and principalship and are unique task, that are not easy all people to engage in. The principal is the corner stone of the school and plays important role on development of education programs. I see that it is necessary to equip principals with knowledge and skills to interact multiple changes and complex task of managing human being. Schools are the mirror of the life and birthplace of human resource so leaders of schools must be familiar with management skills and leadership styles. The main objective of the schools is to produce creative leaners who will be leaders of tomorrow; hence principals must be role models that students and other people in the schools will learn from them.


OCR for Classifying and Retrieving Different Syriac Alphabet Forms[]


In this paper, an attempt is made to present a method for recognizing Syriac alphabet forms using invariant moments and retrieving the other forms of recognized character. The character is distinguished first and then the other two forms of recognized charater are retrieved. A minimum distance nearest neighbor classifier is adopted for classification. The experimental results confirm the recognition and retrieval accuracy as of 100% for different Syriac alphabet forms.


Smart Control Of Hydrodynamic Slug Flow[]


Slugging is the intermittent flow regime in which large bubbles of gas flow alternately with liquid slugs at randomly fluctuating frequency in pipelines. This occurs when the velocity difference between the gas flow rate and liquid flow rate is high enough resulting in an unstable hydrodynamic behaviour usually caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Smart control technology, though effective for the control of severe slugs, has not been applied for hydrodynamic slug mitigation. This work investigated the application of smart control for mitigating hydrodynamic slug problem to enhance oil production and recovery.


An Alternative Strategy for Elimination of Child Labor and Intervention of Human Rights[]


Child Labor issue is one if the great concern throughout the world. It is controversial and emotional issues for the world but the scenario is acute in the developing countries. Moreover, the number of child labors from 5 to 14 years is 250 million in the world today and of them 61% belongs in Asia. Bangladesh is contested terrain in this context and contained 6.5 million child labors who constitute 16.6% of the total labor force of the country. From the constitution of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh and existing laws it has shown that the human rights of the child labors are being violated.Furthermore, Primary data has been collected through questionnaire survey. Secondary data has been collected through Constitution of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Code, Publication of UNICEF, Books and Journals. The collected data has been analyzed through statistical packages. In fact, the present paper attempts to derive a participatory monitoring tool for progress towards sustainable human rights of Child labors of selected area in Khulna City of Bangladesh.


Efeect of Guduchi Kwath And Guggulu In Vaatarakta[]


Ayurveda is a science of life which deals with the preventive and curative aspects of the diseases. The prevention part of the disease is brought about by following Dincharya and Rutucharya. In short this part of science deals with changes in the life styles and which are required for the changes in the environment of the individual. Vaatarakta is, vaata associated with rakta and starts especially in both limbs. The classical symptoms of vatarakta are Kandu, Ruja, Siraaayama, Toda, Spurana, Kunchana, Shyavatwak, Raktatwak, Bheda, Gourav and Suptata. All these symptoms are similar like gout, hence vatarakta can be correlated to Gout.


Foliar application of Caulerpa racemosa seaweed extract as bio-stimulant for enhancement of growth and yield of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)[]


Field experiments were carried out to identify the effect of foliar spraying of Caulerpa racemosa seaweed extract on growth and yield of blackgram. Foliar sprary @ 3 % given at vegetative (VS), flowering (FS) and combinations of vegetative and flowering stages (VS+FS) improved the growth and yield parameters The effect more evident with Caulerpa racemosa as evidenced through increase in dry weight, Leaf Area Index, total chlorophyll, Crop Growth Rate and Relative Growth Rate) and yield attributes (Number of pods plant -1,1000 seed weight and seed yield plant -1) against unsprayed and water sprayed plants. Application of 3 % Caulerpa racemosa extract at combinations of both stages (VS +FS) highly accelerate the growth attributes thereby increased seed yield (74%) compared to control.


Space Debris Destructor Equipment Mounted Over Space Telescope With An Integrated Imaging System[]


The survey reveals that there had been many major catastrophic effects caused by a space junk to the active satellites. It is predicted that below 2000 km altitude, debris particle of about 19,000 pieces larger than 5 cm are tracked along with another 300,000 pieces smaller than 1 cm. Major space debris particles are less than 1 cm which includes dust from solid rocket motors, surface degradation products such as paint flakes. Damages can be reduced with a kind of armor type shielding called as the Whipple shield which protects some parts of the spacecraft. But not all the parts like solar panels and optical devices such as telescopes, or star trackers may be protected in this manner. These components are subject to constant wear by debris and micrometeoroids. So, this collision of debris with other space crafts may lead to greater loss.


Dark Matter Particles[]


Using various detectors, astronomers have seen that the matter which we see is only about 4.6% of the total matter of the universe. This matter consists of only electrons, protons and neutrons. Then what is the major part of universe made up of?
In 1933, an astrophysicist, Fritz Zwinky observed a galaxy and saw that there is a greater mass in the cluster than he could see. He observed that the galaxies were too fast within the cluster within the amount of illuminated stuff he could see. He calculated that there must be 160 times more illuminated mass than we can see and observe. He calculated that the mass of the galaxy was not enough to hold the stuff together. So, much more should be there that could hold this stuff and affect its motion.




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