IJOART Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013 Edition


Journal Front Page




FPGA Implementation Of Hardware Task Management Strategies[]


FPGA-based hardware implementation of multitasking strategies provide high-performance computing that rival ASICs for performance yet provide programmability and ease of development closer to traditional software systems. Because of their usefulness, such systems are high in demand and have limited availability. Multitasking can be used to increase the utilization of reconfigurable FPGAs. In this proposed system a flexible and up-gradable architecture is provided for using the commercially available reconfigurable FPGA'S. In this system different Multi Tasking Strategies are implemented using VHDL on FPGA. Because it can take advantage of an application parallelism, by using methods to context switch reconfigurable computing resources, multitasking reconfigurable computing systems can be constructed that provide most of the features available in traditional reconfigurable computers. This report describes methods to context switch the resources of a reconfigurable computers, as well as a prototype multitasking reconfigurable FPGA that has been created.


Economic conditions and risk taking psyche: An analysis of state of mind[]


The objective of this study is to analyze the state of mind for understanding risk taking decisions with reference to economic conditions. The study was conducted on 100 subjects who belonged to Allahabad city and are employed in different organizations . Some self-employed participants were also included in this study. Individual administration process was adopted for the administration of self designed questionnaire. The analysis of data is based on receiver operative characteristics curve ( ROC) and parametric statistics . It was found that in risk taking psyche age and expected monthly income (EMC) are the main determinants. Effect of academic qualification was not found very sensitive in economic decisions. This study reflects that all strata of employees feel dissatisfied with their present state of income. Approximately 19% are of the opinion for one lac salary per month and approximately 21% are feeling gap in their salary for meet out the modern need and survival challenges. Approximate 42% are dissatisfied with their present employment and plan to switchover their job. This study predicts that the state of psyche of employees is not a linear function. Interpretation is based on available psychological and economic facts.


Popularity of distance education: a look to student's feedback with reference to IDOL[]


Introduced first in 1858 by the University of London, distance mode of education has been fast becoming an accepted and indispensable part of the mainstream of educational systems particularly in developing countries. In India, University of Delhi is the pioneer in this field that introduced DOL in 1982. But in northeastern region, the credit for successful introduction of distance and open learning goes to Guwahati University. With the introduction of this mode of education the university has given opportunity to thousands of hitherto excluded students to have access for higher education. The university has got separate school called Distance and Open Learning (IDOL) and IDOL has opened its study centers across the state. At present, several thousands of students have got enrolment for various courses and programmes offered by the IDOL. However, it will be interesting to explore for the attention of various quarters whether the IDOL is successful in terms of supplying quality study materials, redressing student's grievances, and thus according full satisfaction to the students. Further it will also be encouraging to identy the force that persuades students to go for this mode of education. Keeping these few objectives in mind, a survey was conducted in the month of December, 2011 among 100 students pursuing distance mode of education under IDOL in Darrang College centre. The outcome of the study shows that IDOL has been successful in terms of quality study materials but lacking behind in according full satisfaction to students.


Materials Characterization Using Microwave Technique[]


Microwave is nonionizing energy. It does not alter the molecular structure of the materials. Microwave technique involves the measurements of impedance and power. The Ayurvedic medicines are becoming popular worldwide. Ayurvedic medicines includes different plants, minerals and materials of animal and marine origin. They are basically hybrid composite nanomaterials. In the present work interaction of -NH- amino, >C=O carbonyl, -OH hydroxyl, -CN cyanide and -COOH carboxyl groups, which are most common groups in ASAVA of Ayurvedic medicines, with ethanol has been studied using microwave technique. The static dielectric constant, dielectric relaxation time, Bruggeman factor and thermodynamic parameters were reported.


Comparable study of English Grammatical knowledge between monolingual and bilingual seventh grade students[]


The Language is a social phenomenon and a child learning language, learns not just the rules of the grammatical structure but learns them with reference to the social context. So, in a multilingual set-up contextualize language instruction for young learner must follow the principle of child-centered pedagogy. Within which their views, voices and experiences are given primary and also their active participation is encouraged. Teaching grammar and vocabulary (i.e. giving examples from the home language of the learners) in isolation will not yield the desired result and learning will take place in a fragmented manner whereas, we need to have a holistic prospective on language learning (NCF 2005).


Local Study Of Heat Exchangers Fouling In Laminar Flow Regime: The Entropy Criterion Of Fouling[]


During their operation, the heat exchangers undergo fouling process. This phenomenon results in a reduction of heat exchange and an increase in the pressure losses. Usually, the design of these equipments gives preference to the heat exchange process. Recent studies pointed out the difficulties to assess the fouling process regarding the evolution of the heat transfer alone.This study, basing on the second principle of thermodynamics, proposes local 1D and 2D models where the entropy criterion of fouling is used. It combines the two immediate consequences of the phenomena namely the thermal degradations and the losses of pressure. Fouling was simulated by frosting ice layers on the inner face of a cylindrical pipe. A local analysis allowed the precise localization and the evaluation of the degradations of energy. The model is thermally validated.


Petrol & Diesel Pollution Control By Potassium Alum[]


To control petrol & diesel pollution the world need of different cost effective sources. Potassium Alum usage in petrol and diesel found to be one among them. In order to get easy access about Potassium Alum effect on Petrol & Diesel, there is a need to analyze Potassium Alum, Petrol, and Diesel.


The Impact of Antiretroviral Drugs on Viral Loads in HIV Positive Patients[]


The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent for Acquire Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS represents a global health crisis that threatens to overwhelm even the best health care delivery systems. Infection with HIV results in a progressive destruction of the CD4 lymphocytes, and subsequent development of HIV related opportunistic infections. The destruction of the T- cells is due mainly to active viral replication. A specific immune response to HIV occurs in HIV infected patients during primary infection and the strength of the primary immune response may be predictive of subsequent viral load in the body. Viral load are part of the laboratory data, which give guidelines on commencement, and subsequent monitoring of chemotherapy. The primary goal of antiretroviral therapy is optimal and durable suppression of viral load, preservation and / or restoration of immunologic function, improvement of life and reduction of HIV related morbidity and mortality. An important aspect of antiretroviral treatment is accurate determination of when to commence and stop chemotherapy. Monitoring viral load is essential for managing therapy since there is evidence that this important parameter may vary from individual to individual. The objective of the study was to monitor and assess the virological responses of HIV-infected individuals with administration of Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and establish the relationship between viral load and chemotherapy in the study population. The study was conducted between January and June, 2006, on people who were voluntarily attending Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) centre in Nakuru General Hospital after getting consent from the hospital's administration. A cross sectional study design that involved selecting subjects and obtaining information was used to sample the study group and a total of 80 patients, 12 males and 68 females participated in the study. Screening for HIV was performed by parallel testing using Determine and UniGold HIV1/2 test kits. On testing HIV positive, the patients were referred to the Centre for Comprehensive Care (CCC), Nakuru, where they were referred for laboratory investigations. Their viral loads were measured using ExaVir Load Kit prior to commencement of antiretroviral regimens. Virologic responses to therapy were determined by measuring viral loads at two weeks interval on commencement of ARVs and monthly for three subsequent months thereafter. In all eighty patients, the highest viral load detected at the baseline was 1,900,000 copies/ml of plasma and the lowest was 100 copies/ml of plasma. The patients were categorized into three groups based on the viral loads at the baseline as: those with less than 50,000 copies/ml of plasma, those with between 50,000-100,000 copies/ml of plasma and those with more than 100,000 copies/ml of plasma. The overall mean viral load before commencement of chemotherapy was 419,343 and after fourteen weeks of chemotherapy the mean viral load decreased to 265,537. Responses to chemotherapy between the categories over the entire fourteen weeks were compared by regression analyses. Patients with more than 100,000 copies/ml category were found to have significantly better response (P<0.001; t = 460.7554) than the patients with 50,000-100,000 copies/ml and less than 50,000 copies/ml categories. Reduced viral loads were observed as early as two weeks after initiating chemotherapy, an indication that patients were responding to ARVs and achieving an improvement in immunologic functions. Viral loads were found to be predictive of the benefits of chemotherapy. Data generated will be useful in improvement of HIV management strategies.


Comparative Analysis of Different Wavelets in OWDM with OFDM for DVB-T[]


To increase the data rate of wireless medium with high performance, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is used which is a powerful technique that uses an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) at the transmitter to modulate a high bit-rate signal onto a number of carriers. The problem with this technique is that it is inherently inflexible and requires a more complex IFFT core. This paper provides an analysis of a technique for both designing wavelets and to measures respective performances, called Orthogonal Wavelet Division Multiplex (OWDM), an alternative to OFDM, which uses a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) instead of using the IFFT to generate the output and has a lower computational complexity and increases flexibility. The three of the more common wavelet families are investigated with increasing order to ascertain which wavelet transform is the most suited for use in an AWGN channel and measures the performance in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) for AWGN channel in comparison with OFDM and illustrates the next level analysis of new system comparing different wavelets. It is also able to in-creases the spectral efficiency and decreases the bit error rate as compare with OFDM. Performance of BER, evaluation of SNR and the design of OWDM are synthesized through computer simulations using MATLAB.


A Hybrid Network For Automatic Greenhouse Management[]


A greenhouse is a building in which plants are grown in closed environment. Greenhouse management is controlling of several greenhouse. The wireless section is located in the indoor environment where great flexibility is needed, particularly in the production area of greenhouse. Instead, the wired section is mainly used in the outside area as a control backbone, to interconnect the greenhouse with the control room. An integrated wired/wireless solution is to use the advantages of both technologies by improving performances. In the wired section, a controller area network (CAN) type network has been chosen on the account of its simplicity, strongest, cheapness, and good performances. for the wireless part, a Zigbee type network has been chosen. The SCADA system is to monitor and control data in a simple way. To maintain the optimal conditions of the environment, greenhouse management requires data acquisition using the SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)


Electromagnetic Model of an Arc[]


In the beginning of this paper start with simple geometry taken sinusoidal voltage and current at both contacts respectively, by this the electric field and magnetic field distribution is clearly described. As all major models of an arc are based on its behavior due to electric field, in this model the whole effect are discussed and measured with value of current density and electric field intensity. Finally at the last the paper is concluded with arc resistivity in begining of few nanoseconds of arc development, it clearly shows that magnetic field is affecting the arc resistance to extinguish an arc.


Equilibrium and Isotherm studies of the biosorption of potentially toxic elements from aqueous solution by Blighia sapida (Akee apple) seeds[]


The possibility of using Blighia sapida seeds to remove Cu2+, Co2+ and Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions was explored in this study. The effects of pH, contact time, concentration of metal solution and adsorbent dosages were monitored using Multi-metal batch adsorption technique at 320C. The residual concentrations of the potentially toxic elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of the uptake level of the metal ions were found to be dependent on pH of the solution, metal ions type and adsorbent dosage. The adsorption mechanism indicated that biosorption of Co2+ and Cd2+ ion fitted better for Freundlich isotherm while the biosorption of Cu2+ ion was observed to fit well to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum sorption uptake of the studied metal ions by Blighia sapida seeds was in the order of Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Co2+ ions. This study justifies that Blighia sapida seeds might serve as a viable low cost agricultural waste to remove potentially toxic elements from aqueous solution.


Angiogenesis, p53, and Bcl2 in Colorectal Carcinoma[]


The study was an attempt to evaluate the angiogenesis activity as well as the immunohistochemical expression of p53 and Bcl2 proteins in patients with colorectal carcinoma. A series of 52 surgically operated colorectal carcinoma cases were enrolled. The angiogenic activity was assessed based on microvessel density and the expression of p53 and Bcl2 proteins were studied by im-munohistochemistry. p53 expression was increased in 46.2% of cases while active angiogenesis was demonstrated in 61.5% of cases. Both active angiogenesis and p53 expression were significantly higher than Bcl2 expression (9.6%). None of the studied parameters had any significant association with clinicopathologic findings despite a trend showing a decrease toward right sid-ed tumors and with worsening histological grade and tumor stage. In conclusion, colorectal carcinoma is associated with in-creased p53 expression and angiogenesis activity compared with Bcl2 expression, but their potential use in the clinical setting of colorectal carcinoma appears to be of limited value.


A Note on Present Trends in Yoga Apart From Medicine Usage And Its Applications[]


In this paper, we studied together on yoga in regard with yoga acts as cure for various diseases viz., high blood pressure, sugar, chronic head-ache, back pains, spondlites, tensions and stress released by practicing yoga regular basis. Yoga is replacement for any sort of medicine to cure the diseases affected by mankind. On observation except high blood pressure and sugar these two are chronicle diseases so no cure but it is under control unless and otherwise regularly one hour yoga should be in practice. As a result it observed that if three months continuously and rigorously if one practices and involved in yoga totally controlled one's body and eligible for fitness in health which is ultimate goal for everybody. Apart from this if no disease affected even if they practice one hour yoga regular basis one need not take medicine for one's health care and also no question of facing any sort of disease. Mainly, In result high blood pressure to normal blood pressure , sugar bring down to normal sugar by doing pranayama, aasanas, kriyas, mudras and meditation, back pain, neck pain totally got relief by aasanas and exercises prescribed thereof.


Non-invasive Assessment of EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy) based on cell Equivalent Electrical circuit Model[]


Fandamental prerequisite for persistent health-care system is non-invasive detection and monitoring. For tissue level diagnosis there different non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, X-ray, magnetic resonance and optical imaging. Along with different noninvasive techniques EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy) is appearing as more suitable technique having some unique advantages. This paper presents a non-invasive technique for bioelectrical impedance estimation by means of Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in MATlABby using pulsed current-voltage technique. A simple circuit for current pulse injection and voltage pulse detection is accomplished with two electrodes would reduce tissue irritation due to electrode polarization. For sake of simplicity and avoid hazards current source is presented with as low as 100µA. Both current pulse and voltage pulse stored in MATLAB from which impedance data are assessed. By using serial port interfacing the real time current and voltage pulse signals are plotted in MATLAB. The findings of the work is that serial port interfacing makes bio-impedance spectroscopy easier to save impedance data and also monitor. Along with this variation of cell parameters is shown. Below radio frequency range is the suggested frequency range of bio-impedance measurement because of higher response of permittivity and conductivityof biological tissues in this band than the high frequency band (MHz).


Secure Communication In Multi-lane Environment In Vanets[]


VANETs, plays an important role in public safety communications. The fascination of mobility, accessibility and flexibility makes wireless technologies the dominant method of transferring all sorts of information. It serves a wide range of applications under different topologies. In this research, we will present a wireless technology with the help of which vehicles can communicate with each other. that is expected to be adopted by both governments and manufacturers in the very near future. It directly affects car accidents. It is the technology of building a robust network between mobile vehicles. This promising technology is literally called Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs).


Class Base Cloud Structure for Effective Cloud Computing[]


Clouds are typically defined according to three types: private, public and hybrid. Public cloud Also known as a shared cloud, such services are provided "as a service" over the Internet with little or no control over the underlying technology infrastructure. This cloud is appealing to many decision-makers as it reduces complexity and long leads times in testing and deploying new products. It is generally cheaper, too but private cloud also called an internal cloud or enterprise cloud, this also offers activities and functions "as a service" but is deployed over a company intranet or hosted datacenter. This is private product for a company or organization offering advance security and highly available or fault tolerant solutions not possible in a public cloud. In this scenario, the private cloud owner shares few, if any, resources with other organizations. Hence, multi-tenancy is not an issue. Hybrid Cloud this is an integrated approach, combining the power of both public and private clouds. Customized rules and policies govern areas such as security and the underlying infrastructure. In this scenario, activities and tasks are allocated to internal or external clouds as required.


Convergence of Three-Step Iterations Scheme for Non-self Asymptotically Non-expansive Mappings[]


The aim of this paper is to prove the weak and strong convergence of the three-step iterative sequence for non-self asymptotically non-expansive mappings in a real uniformly convex Banach space. The results presented in this paper improve and generalize some recent papers by Suantai [7], Khan and Hussain [10], Nilsrakoo and Saejung [6], and many others.


School children knowledge REGARING Dental hygiene[]


School health services are an economical and powerful means of raising standard of community health, especially for the future generations. School is considered as a best setting for the positive health and prevention of diseases, awakening health consciousness in which the child grows and develops. A pre-experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding dental hygiene among middle schoolchildren. The study was conducted in government schools of Jalandhar district, Punjab. Totally 60 students those who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected by convenience sampling technique. A pre-test was taken by using structured questionnaire followed by structured teaching programme. After 7 days post-test was taken. The result of the post-test score revealed that the structured teaching programme had its impact on improving the level of knowledge regarding dental hygiene among middle school children. The overall mean score of pre-test was 14.91 with the S.D. 3.84, whereas in post-test the overall mean score of 23.01 with S.D. of 3.72. The t-test value was -8.1* which is statistically significant at p<0.005 level of significance. After structured teaching programme 68% students had average and 32% had good level of knowledge and no one had poor level of knowledge regarding dental hygiene. The study finding implied that the education had a vital role in improving the knowledge of school children regarding dental hygiene.


Determination Of Bus Voltages, Power Losses And Load Flow In The Northern Nigeria 330kv Transmission Sub-grid[]


In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate power flow in the northern Nigeria 330kV transmission sub - grid using PowerWorld software. The 13 - bus sub - grid was developed on base values of 100MVA and 330kV (transmission line) using data obtained from the National Control Center, Osogbo, Nigeria. The data is valid through 31st December, 2010. The power flow was run using Gauss - Siedel power flow algorithm and low voltage violations were found at buses 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 13. To minimize these voltage violations, shunt capacitor compensators were placed at affected buses, resulting in a network with a minimum bus voltage of 0.95 p.u.. The voltage control also resulted in reduced reactive MVar demand on two of the three generators, with the slack bus experiencing a decrease of 60.27 MVar. The results also indicated that incorporation of compensators yielded a reduction in 8.76 MW and 96.51 MVar line power losses, justifying the study.


Dialogue Journaling in a Science Class at a High School[]


I was really scared and I could not feel blood circulating in my legs. My heart started pounding heavily. I looked through the edges of my eyes over my classmates. There was a pin dropped silence prevailed in the classroom. I noticed half of the students had their mouth open unknowingly and their eyes were opened widely with a similar fear as I was feeling at that time. I had to say something to my teacher who was a kind man of his late 40s. Students always felt a communication gap between themselves and their teachers.


Functional Assessment Project for Aliza at a High school[]


Aliza was 14 years old and was a student of a local high school. The researcher chose Aliza for this study because Aliza expressed her behavior in a significant way that makes her prominent in the class. The study was conducted during spring semester 2012. Teachers, in the past, had many complaints about her behavior that were available in the school record. On the first day of this study when Aliza entered the class she demonstrated inappropriate behavior. She called the teacher"skunk" and got encouragement from her classmates to continue her inappropriate behavior. When teacher informed her not to do that again Aliza was disrespectful and denied that she had had been saying anything to the teacher that was disrespectful. Unlike Aliza, other students in the classroom either stopped their inappropriate behaviors or changed them after they were disciplined. Even though Aliza was disciplined for her behavior she continued to act in the same inappropriate manner.


Conceptualisation to Institutionalisation Grass-root Planning in Haryana[]


This paper outlines the nature of this initiative and analyses the adequacy of the framework for decentralisation and the mechanism of governance adopted by the Haryana government for achieving the desirable goal of participatory democracy. In particular, the paper assesses the state model of decentralisation planning, its operational framework, and ongoing efforts. It also presents the status of village-level planning in the state, including how villages are interacting with one another and with governmental entities outside the state.


Functional Imaging in Carcinoma Thyroid[]


Thyroid imaging is a rapidly evolving field that has received numerous addendum. In current scenario thyroid imaging is not limited to structural imaging but it has included numerous functional imaging modalities ranging from years old Iodine based imaging to PET and SPECT-CT. Of these functional imaging modalities FDG-PET has generated greatest interest with perhaps the greatest utility being the potential localization of tumor in differentiated thyroid cancer(DTC) patients who are radioiodine whole body scan (WBS) negative and thyroglobulin (Tg) positive. It is also useful in identification of patients unlikely to benefit from additional 131I therapy and in identification of patients at highest risk of disease-specific mortality, which may prompt more aggressive therapy or enrollment in clinical trials. Emerging data suggest that PET/CT fusion studies provide increased accuracy and modify the treatment plan in a significant number of DTC cases whereas studies documenting it's utility in Medullary&Anaplastic thyroid cancer are scarce. Another potential utility of FDG-PET is in guided surgery to assist in tumor localization in radio-iodine negative, FDG-PET positive DTC patients. Currently studies documenting improvements in survival and tumor recurrence attributable to FDG-PET imaging in thyroid cancer patients are lacking.Diffusion MRI is being studied in predicting the malignant potential of thyroid nodules.Studies documenting the utility of SPECT-CT fusion imaging are limited to identification of residual foci in neck and systemic metastasis. This article reviews the utility and limitations of functional imaging modalities in thyroid cancer management, and offers practical recommendations


Comparative Study of Different Mobile Operating Systems[]


In the present scenario, mobile technology is a technology which is increasing at a fast pace. This advancement in mobile technology has impacted everyone's life. Nowadays various mobile technologies as well as mobile phones compete in the market. It has reduced the burden of work of a human being in some way or the other. In this paper we will discuss about the various mobile technologies along with the different mobile phones available in the market and the difference between them.


Geomorphological Valuation of Sitla Rao Watershed Using ASTER- DEM, Dehradun, Uttrakhand, India.[]


In the present study geomorphological units of a part of Himalayan watershed has been delineated with the help of ASTER imagery. DEMs used in the present study are generated from toposheet contour interval, SRTM and ASTER. The morphological aspects of these features obtained from DEMs generated from different sources are compared. Geomorphological studies reveal different landform in the area of Sitla Rao watershed which lies in the foothill of Himalaya. Landforms identified in the study area are Doon Fan Gravel Terrace, Doon Fan Gravel Dissected Hill, Sub Recent Fan Terrace, Moderately Dissected Structural Hill, Piedmont Dissected Slope, River Terrace, Channel Bar and River channel. The spatial and statistical distributions of topographic attributes of these units were computed and compared using SAGA 2. 3 software as a digital terrain analysis tool for studying topographic attributes extraction and analysis methods, based on grid DEMs. The study reveals that the DEM resolution has a great influence on terrain or topographic attributes and the statistical value become larger when DEM resolution changes from coarser to finer.


Characterization of AP + HTPB And TDI / IPDI Based Solid Propellant Combustion []


Propellants burn along the local normal and the linear regression rate is called burning velocity. Solid propellant was pre-pared by mixing of AP, HTPB, DOA with TDI and IPDI separately, by weight (gm). Circular shaped pellets were made from the prepared solid propellant .Three samples were tested separately for TDI and IPDI under pressure of 20,30 and 40 bar.The regression rate was determined by conducting experiments in "windows bomb set-ups" by taking combustion photography (images) with the help of high speed CCD digital camera. Then, images were analysed in SIMULINK. The results from SIMULINK were found to be satisfactory when compared with experimental values. The regression rate is obtained as the slope of the linear fit plotted in MS Excel as shown in figure.


Categorizing Packet Loss in Disruption Tolerant Network[]


Disruption tolerant networks (DTNs) are a special type of wireless network which has the lack of continuous connectivity. Due to the unique characteristic of frequent partitioning in DTNs, multicasting is a considerably different and challenging problem. To overcome this issue Distributed scheme is used to detect packet dropping in DTNs. A node may misbehave by dropping packets. Routing misbehaviour can be caused by selfish nodes that are unwilling to spend resources such as power and bandwidth on forwarding packets. It reduces the packet delivery ratio and wastes system resources. Distributed scheme is used to detect packet dropping in DTNs. And genuine packet loss is differentiated with malicious packet loss by comparing the buffer level of every node and assigning bandwidth as per the category. For security, data packets are encrypted. Routing misbehaviour is reduced by limiting the number of packets forwarded to the misbehaving nodes.


Unsteady Couette Flow of an Electrically Conducting Viscous, Incompressible Fluid with Heat Transfer in Presence of Ion-Slip[]


Unsteady Couette flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid with heat transfer between two parallel non-conducting porous plates is investigated .A uniform suction/injection is applied perpendicular to the plate, while the fluid motion is due to a constant pressure gradient. An external uniform magnetic filed is applied perpendicular to the plates and effect of Joule and viscous dissipations are taken in account. The plates are kept at different constant temperatures. The effect of ion-slip and uniform suction and injection on both the velocity and temperature distributions are examined, discussed and shown through graphs.


Implementation Of New Strategies In Elementary Education-A Study On Literature[]


The article emphasis that the teacher role is enormous. In this context the various new strategies are implemented in the Elementary Education system. Education is the harmonious development of a child's latent abilities and inherent talents. The teacher's role is very crucial in providing education and making the children literate. Enrolment of children into schools alone cannot achieve total literacy. The educational standards and the level of achievement can be improved only when the teacher is devoted and committed to his profession. He should be competent, creative and efficient. The teacher should be trained effectively so he may turn out to be an expert in the field. The expertise would certainly help us to arrive at new strategies to be imbibed. This necessitates the development of new concepts, strategies and their implementation through orientation programmes. Majority of the teachers are reluctant towards the implementation of new strategies and techniques under the misconception that they would not yield any striking results.


The Dynamics Of Street Furniture In Urban Centres: The Lagos Example[]


This paper examined the dynamics of street furniture in Urban Centres using Lagos-State as a case study. It called for the understanding of the street furniture as a collective term referring not only to the street surface but also the contents along its stretch. Such contents include elements related to the functional and decorative physical conditions of the street. Empirically, street furniture is the structural aggregate of the road, its drains and utility lines, sidewalks, kerbs and intersections. The study have succeeded in identifying the various definitions given to street furniture, different types of street furniture in Lagos metropolis using survey method of research investigation. This study, however, demonstrated the need for the provision of street furniture in urban area like Lagos State and will serve as reference for the policy maker in this field of study.


Study of sensory and textural properties of protein based edible coated paneer using Response surface methodology[]


The important of milk and milk product has been recognized since Vedic time. Paneer is one of the traditional dairy products of India which is analogous to the western cottage cheese. Paneer is a heat and acid coagulated with permitted organic acid and subsequent drainage of whey followed by pressing. Short life of paneer is one of the most serious problems faced in marketing. Use of edible films on the food products could also be utilized as a protective coating to extend the shelf life. Whey protein based films and coatings are generally flavorless, tasteless, and flexible and source of protein. In preservation of paneer edible coating with antimicrobial agents could be best alternative. The application of edible coatings and films can reduce particle clustering and improve physical strength, visual and tactile feature on product surface. Mechanical strength increased as the protein plasticizer ratio increase. Edible films and coatings may control adhesion, cohesion and durability, and improve the appearance of coated foods. They could enhance the organoleptic, mechanical or nutritional properties of food. . To prepare edible coating using whey protein concentrate (WPC), glycerol, potassium sorbate and nisin used as anti microbial agent. To optimization of level of edible coating ingredients were designed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on hypothesis that the response of the product. Design of experiment was carried out by the software: DESIGN EXPERT, Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was chosen


Nanotechnology Applications In The Energy Sector[]


The report on "Nanotechnology helps solve the world's Energy problems" is addressed to a general audience. The aim is to explain how nanotechnology can help address present and future sustainable energy needs. We start with a short explanation of nanotechnology, focusing on why it is relevant for addressing the world's future energy needs. The rest of the report takes the angle of the main fields of sustainable energy policies and research: renewable, conventional energy, more energy efficiency in industrial production, and energy saving. In each chapter, we start by sketching the present situation and needs for more sustainable (technical) solutions, and existing scenarios. The relevant technologies and applications include: solar cells, hydrogen and fuel cells, batteries, improvement of light bulbs, fossil fuel etc with nanostructure materials and nanopowders, isolation materials, membranes and catalysts, etc. The report ends with a short conclusion and contains an extensive list of literature and internet resources for further reading.


Efficient Technique To Unravel Blood Vessel On Digital Fundus Images[]


The main objective of this project is to detect and segment the blood vessels from the digital fundus images. Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the leading causes of visual impairment. It is characterized by the development of abnormal new retinal vessels. This project uses a gray level based features method for segmenting the blood vessels from the optic disk. Fifteen feature parameters associated with shape, position, orientation, brightness, contrast and line density are calculated for each candidate segment. Based on these features each segment is categorized as normal or abnormal using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. This methodology uses morphological operation to obtain blood vessel.


Ousted from One's Land:Imposed Displacement in an Industrialised era;With Reference To Plight Of Displaced Women And Children In Assam.[]


Nothing can be holier to us than this land. Every particle of dust, everything living or non-living, every stock and stone, tree and rivulet of this land is holy to us. Never, never has our land been dead inanimate matter, but always the living divine mother to all her children-the lowliest and the greatest.


Preliminary field stratigraphy of Khongda Volcanics, Gavilgarh Hill range, Amravati District, Maharashtra, India[]


The ability to distinguish various flows and trace them in different field sections on a regional scale covering a large area is an important criterion in the stratigraphic studies of the Deccan basalts (Khadri, 1989). In this study, an attempt has been made to establish the preliminary flow by flow field stratigraphy by correlating and distinguishing various formations with the help of 10 field traverses giving due consideration to the traceability of the field characters. Mappable sequences of individual flows recognizable in the field were grouped in to the formations based on their similar field characters, major or minor physiographic breaks associated with the presence of marker horizon. A formation represents a thick sequence of lava pile comprising of simple and /or compound flows with comparably less evolved and more primitive type of flows at the bottom, which shows progressive evolution towards the top








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