IJOART Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2013 Edition

Journal Front Page




Comparative study of genomic DNA extraction protocols in rice species[]


This study presents a rapid DNA extraction protocol for rice specie. Three published protocols (Dellaporta et al., 1983; Doyle and Doyle 1990; Wang et al., 1993 ) were comparatively evaluated with the 'STI' protocol for duration of extraction, purity, yield and cost of protocol. The duration and cost of extraction were significantly different (P<0.0001) for all protocols. A positive association (P<0.0001) between cost of extraction, duration of extraction and DNA purity was obtained from 5mg leaf tissue. Proposed 'STI' protocol, with good quality DNA, yield and a shorter duration of extraction would be ideal for genotyping large populations of rice genotypes, where quality, cost and time are of essence.


Feeding Practices are Associated With Linear Growth[]


The new norms of Infant and Young Child Feeding(IYCF) in India are exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months (replacing the 4-6 months age range of earlier guidelines), introduction of complementary foods at six months while continuing breastfeeding upto the age of two years or beyond (1). Adequate nutrition through appropriate IYCF practices during infancy and early childhood is fundamental to the development of each child's full human potential. However, it is disheartening to note that the critical IYCF practices are faulty around the world, with the literature suggesting that only 37% of infants are exclusively breast fed for the first six months and only 55% are introduced to complementary food with continued breastfeeding in the age group of 6-9 months. Only half of the world's children are breast fed at the age of 20-23 months. (2). The poor breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, coupled with high rates of infections, are the principal proximate causes of malnutrition during the first two years of life. Although infants are supposed to start complementary feeding at the completion of six months, some of them are offered even earlier (3). The present study was conducted with main objective to asses the feeding practices of children and determine its association with nutrition status.


Multilocular Ameloblastoma of Mandible-A Case Report[]


Ameloblastoma is a true neoplasm of odontogenic epithelial origin. It is the second most common odontogenic neoplasm, and only odontoma outnumbers it in reported frequency of occurrence. Its incidence, approximately 1% of all oral tumours and 18% of all odontogenic tumours, combined with its clinical behaviour, make ameloblastoma the most significant odontogenic neoplasm. The ameloblastoma occurs in three variants, each with specific implications for treatment and a unique prognosis: solid or multicystic, unicystic, and peripheral. A painless expansion of the jaws is the most common clinical presentation; neurosensory changes are uncommon, even with large tumours. Slow growth is the rule, with untreated tumours leading to tremendous facial disfigurement especially for solid ameloblastoma. It is characterised by high recurrence rate (up to 70% depending on treatment modality) and potential to undergo malignant transformation and to metastasize (in up to 2% cases) .we report a case of multicystic ameloblastoma in a 56 year old male.


Chemical Properties of Drinking Water of Some Villages in Sangamner Tahasil, Dist- Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India and its Impact on Human Health[]


This paper is an attempt to assess the effect of drinking water quality on health of the people living in Sangamner Tahasil Dist- Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples were collected from 18 different Villages in Sangamner Tahasil and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Calcium, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium, Total Hardness, Electrical Conductivity, Chlorides, sulphates, Sodium, Iron Potassium, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, total alkalinity. The found values of physicochemical parameters were compared with the World Health Organization water quality standards. Study of all these characteristics and correlation studies indicates that in some of these studies areas water was polluted and not suitable for drinking purpose. The drinking water of the area needs some degree of treatment before consumption and prevention steps to be taken from contamination.


Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Productivity among Fadama Farmers in Edo South Zone of Edo State, Nigeria[]


The study focus was on socio-economic factors affecting fadama farmers' productivity in Edo State. Data relating participant farmer characteristics as well as yield were obtained by means of structured interview schedule from 80 respondents. Data analysis reveals the average yield of respondents was 202.38kg. Adoption of fadama-related technologies was low i.e. 3. While participation in fadama projects was low (65%). Respondents were about 37 years old, with low literacy level and fairly large household size (8). Respondents' productivity was significantly related to participation in fadama projects. (b = 0.335), education (b = 0.540) and family size (b = 0.601). The study therefore recommends active farmers involvement in fadama projects as well as upgrading their educational status through adult literacy classes and/or extension (ADP) training sessions.


An Assessment of The Power Sector Reform in Nigeria[]


The paper assesses the power sector reforms from the Obasanjo Administration (1999) to date with a view to bringing out the problems and prospects, challenges and defects associated with the reforms. The paper also sets to explore better ways of ensuring the success of the reforms by identifying certain key issues that must be addressed by government. The work uses documentary analysis method in sorting out relevant information. The paper concludes that, the government needs to aim at overhand rather than severing with existing situations in the energy and power sector respectively as well as the overall national socio-economic and political order.


Some Variables of Effective Dimension in Relation to the Achievement in Mathematics at Secondary Stage[]


In this study two variables of effective dimensions viz. mathematical ability and attitude towards mathematics related to mathematics have been taken and their relation on the achievement in mathematics has been studied to the pupils at secondary stage. A sample of 500 students of standard IX from secondary school of south kamrup district, Assam, participated in the present study, in which the relationship among the achievement in mathematics was most closely related with mathematical ability and attitude towards mathematics. Mathematical ability is the combination of Arithmetic ability, algebraic ability and geometric ability.


Load Forecasting of Rural Areas for Rural Electrification[]


In this paper the demand for rural electricity is increasing with the technology options available for rural electrification. Rural electricity access in India is currently inadequate for needs of the rural population and there is observed and revealed willingness to pay for better electricity supply. Distributed Generation can be economically suitable option in case studies in literature and analysed in the field survey.


Role Of Molecular Chaperons In Protein Folding[]


Gene functions are manifested in the form of proteins. They are central for the various biological activities. For the cell to properly function, proteins must be properly expressed at specific location where they are required and at proper time. Though the proteins are expressed properly, they should acquire a proper stable 3D structure to perform its activity. This is brought about by proper protein folding. Protein folding is a process by which a string of amino acids which is formed by a process translation of mRNA, interact among themselves to form a stable three dimensional structure during production of protein within the cell. This folding must be fast, proper and accurate. But in the cellular environment, newly synthesized proteins are prone to misfolding resulting in adverse effects. So cells have evolved a complex mechanism which enables proteins to fold properly and avoid unwanted aggregation and also the misfolded proteins are eliminated by assistance of chaperones and ubiquitin proteasome degradation system respectively to ensure high accuracy in protein expression. Under certain circumstances, misfolded proteins escape the degradation process resulting in the arose of large number of neurodegenerative disorders in humans. These neurodegenerative disorders in humans include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Gaucher's disease and many more. Cellular Molecular Chaperones which are naturally found in body and newly synthesised chemical and pharmacological chaperones are being used to decrease the severity of several neurodegenerative disorders by preventing the misfolding of proteins. They also help in the treatment of various disorders like parkinson's disease, huntington's disease, Alzhimer's disease, oral ulcers, gastric carcinoma, prion diseases, cardio vascular diseases and many more. They can be induced by creating stress to the organism and thus in the production of heat shock proteins that help in the proper folding of the proteins and reduce the damage of the tissue.


Determination Of The Performances Of Cookstoves Using The Controled Cooking Test: Benin Case Study[]


Biomass cook stoves are widely used in developing countries. These stoves generally use wood fuel which represents about 60 to 86% of the total primary energy consumption in Africa; a few exceptions are observed in northern Africa countries and South Africa where this rate is lower. For some African regions, this rate raises up to 90-98% of the total consumption. In Benin, the estimations of the june1993 environmental action plan reveal that the forest declines in area by 100 thousand hectares every year. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the type of meal and the type of stove on its performances.


BER Performance Analysis of QAM Modulation Techniques in MIMO Rayleigh Channel for WCDMA System[]


Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) technology has emerged as the most widely adopted third generation (3G) air interface. 3GPP Release 7 (HSPA+) WCDMA systems introduced two features Higher Order Modulation (HOM) and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). MIMO improve the throughput in wireless medium. It achieves a higher spectral efficiency. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of 16 QAM and 64 QAM in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) Transmission in the Rayleigh channel by considering two encoding REED SOLOMON Encoding and BCH Encoding in WCDMA system. The analysis has been performed by using MATLAB for simulation and evaluation of Bit Error Rate (BER) for W-CDMA system.


Role of non-collagenous bone protein in metastasis-Pathological basis[]


Despite modern intervention, the 5-year survival rate of various carcinomas has improved only marginally over the past few decades. Treatment failure for body cancers can be attributed to multiple factors which are difficult to predict. The prognosis largely remains uncertain. Recent studies have focused on the use of biomarkers and gene array technology for determining prognosis in these patients. Non-collagenous bone proteins play an important role in immune mechanisms and helps in regulatory pathways of the body. These induce endothelial cell migration and in macrophages, regulate migration towards some chemokines. Osteopontin plays an important role in the process of angiogenesis.Several studies suggest that osteopontin increases invasiveness by inducing proteinases, and acts in association with other growth factors to induce malignant properties. Many studies indicate that osteopontin expression renders cells more tumorigenic & increases tendency of cells towards metastasis. Osteopontin protein was shown to be elevated in histological sections of several types of human pre-cancer tissues compared to normal tissue. This article discusses role of osteopontin and other bone proteins in tumorogenesis.


Comparitive study of 2C molecular level, 3C water molecular level and 3C mineral molecular level of Indian subjects[]


The aim of the present paper was to compare the 2C molecular level, 3C water molecular level and 3C mineral molecular level of Indian subjects. %BF were calculated using different equations. For 2C molecular level Siri 2C body equation developed in year 1956 was used. For 3C water molecular level Siri developed 3C equation in 1961 which was more accurate than the Siri 2C body composition equation. For 3C mineral molecular level Lohman in 1986 devised a 3C model that accounts for variability in the relative mineral content of the FFB. These equations were used to calculate BF% of Indian subjects. The results obtained were then validated with the Maltron-II Body composition analyser and it was found that the results were in close proximity with the results obtained from instrument.In addition to this statistical Analysis of the data is carried out with the help of statistical software R version (2.9.2) which is useful to study the correlation obtained from the the Instrument, and that obtained by scientists. Further different other parameters of statistics is formulated in tabular form.


Toxicity of fluoride in liver of Albino rat and Mitigation after adopting artificial (Vitamin C and D) and natural (Aloe vera) food supplementations[]


Fluoride is a widespread non biodegradable and relatively persistent pollutant, which at low levels of contamination causes serious health problems difficult to cure. Fluoride pollution in India is mainly due to natural sources reported so far. Its concentration in water is much higher than the recommended values by different authorities. More than half a million people are affected by the disease called fluorosis which is due to chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride toxicity is characterized by a variety of signs and symptoms.Poisoining most commonly occurs following ingestion either accidental or intentional of fluoride containing products. In present study effects of oral administration of sodium fluoride(Naf) at a dose of 10mg/l of Naf per kg of body weight for 30, 60 & 90 days respectively were investigated in liver of mice.Naf treatment resulted in liver few focal areas, necrosis of hepatic cells were observed along with proliferation of hepatic cords. These changes were appeared after exposing rats to 10mg/l of sodium fluoride per kg of body weight for 30 days. While after 60 days of treatment, the normal lobular pattern of hepatic cords start distorted showing degenerative changes with necrosis and hepatic cells in certain areas were found to be vacuolated. After 90 days treatment enlarged & dilated hepatic vein were observed along with degeneration of hepatocyte with and excessive hepatic cell necrosis. These changes were recovered too much extent after withdrawal of Naf and mitigated by Artificial source (vitamin C & D) and Natural source (Aloe vera) food supplementation.


A Low Power Cmos Electrocardiogram Amplifier Design Using 0.18µm Cmos Technology[]


An electrocardiogram (ECG) amplifier was designed in 0.18 µm standard CMOS technology with the power consumption of 1.47µw, 54.5( pV)/(vHz) input-referred noise, and a common-mode rejection ratio of 82 dB. The ECG amplifier was designed that pick-up the lower power signal from the heart. The main challenge includes amplifying the weak signal in the presence of noise. The OTA design is well utilized to remove the flicker noise. The performance of the ECG amplifier can be improved by input transistor sizing, device matching and gain-setting adaptive element. Compared to previous work [1], the signal quality is better with less power consumption. The amplified signal can be processed and send to the hospital via wireless transceiver.


Study on Trophic status of "Moghat Reservoir Khandwa" (M.P.)[]


Khandwa is one of the districts of the state M.P. The Moghat reservoir is situated three Kilometers away in the Northwest area of Khandwa town on 210 49` 36`` N latitude and 760 20`56`` E longitudes. It is a man made reservoir built in 1897. The present study aims to know the present trophic status of the reservoir and to give some suggestion to Municipal Corporation for the conservation of this historical and useful water body.


Implementation of Embedded Image Registration using FPGA[]


The main objective of this project work is to implement an image registration algorithm and complementing hardware architecture that can perform the algorithm in real-time and produce accurate results across problem domains and deliver the results in multiple formats to facilitate integration with other embedded image processing systems.


Petroleum Hydrocarbons Pollution in Soil and its Bioaccumulation in mangrove species, Avicennia marina from Alibaug Mangrove Ecosystem, Maharashtra, India[]


This study was carried out to provide information on the status of contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons in the mangrove ecosystem of Alibaug, Maharashtra, India and to assess petroleum hydrocarbon phytotoremediation potential of mangrove species Avicennia marina. Soil and plant sample including leaves, roots and seedlings were collected from eighteen sites, fifteen from the mangrove area and the rest from Akshi beach along the coast of the Arabian Sea during December the year of 2010. Samples were analysed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) using gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (FID). The mean level of TPH in the studied samples was found exceed the average global permissible limit in the soil samples and phytotoxic level in the plant samples .The result showed the level of TPH was in the order Root > Seedling > Leaf > Surface soil > Depth soil indicating TPH uptake by Avicennia marina. The Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and Translocation Factor values proved the potential of using Avicennia marina for phytoremediation to prevent, control and clean up petroleum hydrocarbons pollutions in the coastal areas.


Indian Value Systems Vis-A-vis HIV/AIDS[]


In India, as elsewhere, AIDS is often seen as "someone else's problem" - as something that affects people living on the margins of society, whose lifestyles are considered immoral. Even as it moves into the general population, the HIV epidemic is still misunderstood among the Indian public. People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) have faced violent attacks, been rejected by families, spouses and communities, been refused medical treatment, and even, in some reported cases, denied the last rites before they die. A 2006 study found that 25% of people living with HIV in India had been refused medical treatment on the basis of their HIV-positive status. It also found strong evidence of stigma in the workplace, with 74% of employees not disclosing their status to their employees for fear of discrimination. Of the 26% who did disclose their status, 10% reported having faced prejudice as a result. As well as adding to the suffering of people living with HIV, this discrimination is hindering efforts to prevent new infections. While such strong reactions to HIV and AIDS exist, it is difficult to educate people about how they can avoid infection. AIDS outreach workers and peer-educators have reported harassment, and in schools, teachers sometimes face negative reactions from the parents of children that they teach about AIDS. Discrimination is also alarmingly common in the health care sector. Negative attitudes from health care staff have generated anxiety and fear among many people living with HIV and AIDS. As a result, many keep their status secret. It is not surprising that for many HIV positive people, AIDS-related fear and anxiety, and at times denial of their HIV status, can be traced to traumatic experiences in health care settings. These are all influence of Indian values.


Computer controlled automated small vehicle[]


This paper represents a computer controlled small vehicle. This type of vehicle can move in a predefined path without human operator intervention and can collect data from the surrounding environment. This data has been processed by a well structured hardware and software. After processing the received data is sent to the vehicle to move it in its correct path. This type of vehicle can be used in variety of application such as military spying, fire fighting system etc.


Barriers for implementation of Six Sigma by Small and Medium Enterprises[]


Six Sigma is a business improvement strategy adopted by companies all over the world which will reduce the process variation drastically and enhance effectiveness of the businesses. Since its inception Six Sigma has been largely confined to the domain of only the big companies with good resources. But, this breakthrough methodology is equally applicable to the small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) also for improving their bottom-line. SMEs should get educated about this methodology, overcome the barriers and start reaping the benefits. In this article some of the issues and factors that are acting as barriers for adoption of Six Sigma by SMEs have been discussed.


Family Relationship Pattern and Mental Helath in Adolescents[]


The study aims to investigate the correlations that exist among family relationships and mental health status among adolescents. This study was carried out on 100 randomly sampled adolescents of Dibrugarh, Assam. The sample comprised of a mixed group of students from high and low socio-economic status. It was hypothesized that 1) mental health status in adolescents is positively related to parental acceptance 2) there is a relationship between the category of adolescents' mental health and their socio-economic status 3) that the parental attitudes for mother and father differs towards girls and boys. Mental Health Check-List was used as a measure of mental health. The pattern of family relationship was measured using Dr.G.P.Sherry and Dr.J.C.Sinha's Family Relationship Inventory. It enabled the study of the dimensions of Parental Acceptance, Concentration and Avoidance. Data were analyzed through Multivariate Analysis, Pearson's Correlation method and t-tests to test the significance of the differences. Results indicate that adolescents whose parents were viewed as accepting, especially the mother, had a better mental health status. Above average to average level of parental acceptance was found for adolescents belonging to high socio-economic status whereas average to below-average level of parental acceptance accounted for those belonging to low socio-economic status. Parental acceptance also differed significantly for boys and girls. High to above-average level of parental avoidance was seen among adolescents from high-socio economic background. Variance in paternal avoidance was indicated for boys and girls. The level of parental concentration was average for both groups. However there is a difference in Mothers' concentration towards boys and girls.


Nanobiotechnology as a Probe to Study Dielectric Properties of Ayurvedic Medicines[]


Nanotechnology is a word used to describe a wide variety of different technologies and materials that share one thing in common - their very small size. The properties of the materials depend not only on chemical composition and structural features but also on the degree of molecular order and size. The study of dielectric properties of materials is of great importance in exploring the molecular structure and dynamics of matter. The development of high current technology increased the demand for dielectric materials. The dielectric relaxation phenomenon has been applied to study the biological and nonbiological macromolecules. The information such as molecular flexibility or rigidity, shape and size etc. obtained using dielectric relaxation. When molecular system is placed in an electric field, there is always the tendency for the electrically charged species to move along the field in the appropriate direction, causing the atom to develop an induced dipole moment. The structure of molecules has a strong influence on polarization processes. Time domain spectroscopy in reflection mode has been used to determine complex reflection coefficient for Ayurvedic Medicines in ethanol at 10oC, 20oC, 30oC and 40oC temperatures, at 12.4 GHz frequency. Fourier transform and least squares fit methods have been used to obtain the complex permitivity, static dielectric constant and relaxation time.


GSM Based Automatic Motor Control and Protection System[]


Some wise scientist once said that control system is a system where we can shut down the machine whenever we want. That's the difference between controlled and uncontrolled machine. Our project is about make this control system efficient and dynamic. As the name suggested the automatic control is for controlling the motor from remote place, look over it's operating conditions, get feedback from the motor itself. Our target is to control the motor from distant place by mobile DTMF tone and also get feedback by SMS while it is in ON or OFF condition. We also ensure the safe operation of the motor by detecting the voltage of the source and ensure feedback from system while it is over or under voltage. Again we also get these feedbacks by SMS as well. GSM network is everywhere in our country that's why we choose GSM network to operate our motor also transfer feedback information through it. We also use GSM network because if we use it then we don't need to establish extra equipment for networking. To transmit feedback signals we use GSM modem at the motor end also generate control signal by mobile DTMF because it is very easy to generate DTMF by mobile station and send feedback SMS by Modem as well. In industrial sector we hope our project is become handy and cost effective to operate motor and give it's protection


Performance Analysis and Security Provisions for VoIP Servers[]


The security issues are raising fast as many small and large scale organizations adopting VoIP communications. VoIP communication is a challenging aspect among security and preventive aspects for its service providers. Security tools are used to gain high level of performance of entire VoIP system. This paper provides the performance analysis of VoIP based servers providing services like IPPBX, IVR, Voice-Mail, MOH, Video-Call and also covers up the security provisions for securing VoIP servers.


Consolidated Renewable Energy - A Future Hawk-Eyed Energy In India[]


Energy is the key building block of economic growth of any nation. Today India facing energy crisis at alarming rate that impediments the economic development of nation. This paper draws on evidence from the last four decades of energy production and consumption in India, analyzing the overview evolution of renewable energy status and further potential at national and global level. Further, it explores the strength, weakness; opportunities and threats (SWOT) of renewable energy sector in India. The barriers and solutions to the renewable energy development in India are also outlined.


Detecting Signals In Wireless Sensor Network Using Localized Routing[]


A number of energy-aware routing protocols were proposed to seek the energy efficiency of routes in Multihop wireless networks. Among them, several geographical localized routing protocols were proposed to help making smarter routing decision using only local information and reduce the routing overhead. However, all proposed localized routing methods cannot guarantee the energy efficiency of their routes. In this article, we first give a simple localized routing algorithm, called Localized Energy-Aware Restricted Neighborhood routing (LEARN), which can guarantee the energy efficiency of its route if it can find the route successfully. We then theoretically study its critical transmission radius in random networks which can guarantee that LEARN routing finds a route for any source and destination pairs asymptotically almost surely. We also extend the proposed routing into three-dimensional (3D) networks and derive its critical transmission radius in 3D random networks.


Petrol & Diesel Pollution Control By Potassium Alum []


To control petrol & diesel pollution the world need of different cost effective sources. Potassium Alum usage in petrol and diesel found to be one among them. In order to get easy access about Potassium Alum effect on Petrol & Diesel, there is a need to analyze Potassium Alum, Petrol, and Diesel.


Parametric Effects during Nonconventional Machining of PRALSICMMC by EDM[]


Advance Particulate Reinforced Al/SiC Metal Matrix Composites (PRALSICMMC) is gradually becoming very important materials in manufacturing industries e.g. aerospace, automotive and automobile industries due to their superior properties such as light weight, low density, high strength to weight ratio, high hardness, high temperature and thermal shock resistance, superior wear and corrosive resistance, high specific modulus, high fatigue strength etc. In this study aluminium (Al-6063)/SiC Silicon carbide reinforced particles metal-matrix composites (MMCs) are fabricated by melt-stirring technique. The MMCs bars and circular plates are prepared with varying the reinforced particles of SiC by weight fraction ranging from 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The average reinforced particles sizes of SiC are 220 mesh, 300 mesh and 400 mesh respectively. The stirring process is carried out at 200 rev/min rotating speed by graphite impeller for 15 min. The series of machining tests are performed on EDM. Prepared specimens of Al/SiC MMCs are used as work piece (anode), copper electrodes are used as tool (cathode) and kerosene is used as the dielectric fluid. The parameters are investigated Time taken, Tool wear Rate(TWR) and Metal Removal Rate(MRR) for each experiment by varying mesh size (220 mesh, 300mesh and 400 mesh) of SiC Particles, weight fractions wt % (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) of SiC particles, Pulse Peak Current IP (2 Amp, 6 Amp, 10 Amp,14 Amp), Pulse on time Ton (30 µ sec, 50 µ sec, 70 µ sec and 90 µ sec), Pulse off time Toff (3 µ sec, 5 µ sec, 7 µ sec and 9 µsec) and gap voltage Vg ( 25 Volts, 30 Volts, 35 Volts and 40 Volts). The investigations of results are done graphically.


Optimal Equi-scaled Families of Ostrowski's Method System of Nonlinear Equations[]


In this paper, we present many new fourth -order optimal families of Ostrowski's method for computing zeros of system of nonlinear equations numerically. In this paper, we extending the idea of the proposed families of Ostrowski's method to system of nonlinear equations .It is proved that the above said families have fourth order of convergence. Several numerical examples are also given to illustrate the efficiency and the performance of the presented families.


Evaluation of the effectiveness of training programmes in BPCL and ONGC Mumbai[]


Training and development is essential to organizations which seek to gain a competitive advantage through a highly skilled and flexible workforce, and are seen as a major element to high productivity and quality performance. A skilled workforce can increase productivity by producing a higher level of work with greater value. A skilled workforce can improve a firm's operative flexibility as they will be easier to retrain due to their broad knowledge base of multi-skills. This allows management to be confident in using new technology and provide employers with progressive adjustment to change in production methods, produce requirement and technology. Training is growing importance to companies seeking to gain an advantage among competitors. There has been significant debate among professionals and scholars as to the affect that training has on both employee and organizational goals. One school of thought argues that training leads to an increase in turnover while the other states that training is a tool to that can lead to higher levels of employee retention Regardless of where one falls within this debate, most professionals agree that employee training is a complex human resource practice that can significantly impact a company's success.


Toxicity of fluoride in liver of Albino rat and Mitigation after adopting artificial (Vitamin C and D) and natural (Aloe vera) food supplementations.[]


Fluoride is a widespread non biodegradable and relatively persistent pollutant, which at low levels of contamination causes serious health problems difficult to cure. Fluoride pollution in India is mainly due to natural sources reported so far. Its concentration in water is much higher than the recommended values by different authorities. More than half a million people are affected by the disease called fluorosis which is due to chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride toxicity is characterized by a variety of signs and symptoms.Poisoining most commonly occurs following ingestion either accidental or intentional of fluoride containing products. In present study effects of oral administration of sodium fluoride(Naf) at a dose of 10mg/l of Naf per kg of body weight for 30, 60 & 90 days respectively were investigated in liver of mice.Naf treatment resulted in liver few focal areas, necrosis of hepatic cells were observed along with proliferation of hepatic cords. These changes were appeared after exposing rats to 10mg/l of sodium fluoride per kg of body weight for 30 days. While after 60 days of treatment, the normal lobular pattern of hepatic cords start distorted showing degenerative changes with necrosis and hepatic cells in certain areas were found to be vacuolated. After 90 days treatment enlarged & dilated hepatic vein were observed along with degeneration of hepatocyte with and excessive hepatic cell necrosis. These changes were recovered too much extent after withdrawal of Naf and mitigated by Artificial source (vitamin C & D) and Natural source (Aloe vera) food supplementation.


Multilocular Ameloblastoma Of Mandible-a Case Report[]


Ameloblastoma is a true neoplasm of odontogenic epithelial origin. It is the second most common odontogenic neoplasm, and only odontoma outnumbers it in reported frequency of occurrence. Its incidence, approximately 1% of all oral tumours and 18% of all odontogenic tumours, combined with its clinical behaviour, make ameloblastoma the most significant odontogenic neoplasm. The ameloblastoma occurs in three variants, each with specific implications for treatment and a unique prognosis: solid or multicystic, unicystic, and peripheral. A painless expansion of the jaws is the most common clinical presentation; neurosensory changes are uncommon, even with large tumours. Slow growth is the rule, with untreated tumours leading to tremendous facial disfigurement especially for solid ameloblastoma. It is characterised by high recurrence rate (up to 70% depending on treatment modality) and potential to undergo malignant transformation and to metastasize (in up to 2% cases) .we report a case of multicystic ameloblastoma in a 56 year old male.


Computer controlled automated small vehicle[]


This paper represents a computer controlled small vehicle. This type of vehicle can move in a predefined path without human operator intervention and can collect data from the surrounding environment. This data has been processed by a well structured hardware and software. After processing the received data is sent to the vehicle to move it in its correct path. This type of vehicle can be used in variety of application such as military spying, fire fighting system etc.


Species richness and abundance of Macro invertebrates in Sabarmati river, Gujarat[]


Benthic macro invertebrates are best indicators for Bio-assessment. The abiotic environment of the water body directly affect in the distribution, population density and diversity of the macro benthic community. Benthic fauna are especially of great significance for fisheries that they themselves act as food of bottom feeder fishes (walker et. al 1991). The present study deals with the population density and species diversity of aquatic macro invertebrate fauna. Macro-invertebrates were identified up to family level, and bio assessment at various locations has been done. 27 species of taxonomical group like Oligochaetes ,Diptera, Mollusca Hirudinea Insecta, Crustaceaetc have been found in different composition inhabiting the river.


Evaluation of the effectiveness of training programmes in BPCL and ONGC Mumbai[]


Training and development is essential to organizations which seek to gain a competitive advantage through a highly skilled and flexible workforce, and are seen as a major element to high productivity and quality performance. A skilled workforce can increase productivity by producing a higher level of work with greater value. A skilled workforce can improve a firm's operative flexibility as they will be easier to retrain due to their broad knowledge base of multi-skills. This allows management to be confident in using new technology and provide employers with progressive adjustment to change in production methods, produce requirement and technology. Training is growing importance to companies seeking to gain an advantage among competitors. There has been significant debate among professionals and scholars as to the affect that training has on both employee and organizational goals. One school of thought argues that training leads to an increase in turnover while the other states that training is a tool to that can lead to higher levels of employee retention Regardless of where one falls within this debate, most professionals agree that employee training is a complex human resource practice that can significantly impact a company's success.







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