IJOART Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2013 Edition


Journal Front Page


Pages[1] [2]

Selection Criteria For Lightning Arrester Systems In Nigeria []


Electrical equipment is subject to overvoltage hazards, especially lightning hazard. Effective protection of equipment from lighting-induced overvoltage is dependent on correct arrester selection and installation. In Nigeria, there have been many reported cases of electrical hazards attributed to lightning which has led to loss of lives and equipment. This can be attributed to the fact that Nigeria being close to the equator is on high lighting density area, thus it is important that Nigerians understand the characteristics of standard arrestors. This paper takes a survey of the arrestors found in the Nigerian market and came out with recommendations on the best approach towards selection of lighting arresters for effective electrical protection.


Protection of Intellectua Property Rights in the Republic of Macedonia Conformity with European Standards[]


Protection of human intellect is of great importance to any economy. The development of a market economy is conditioned with the legal protection of intellectual property rights. There is no turnover of goods without legal protection to intellectual property rights. Protecting intellectual property rights is important not only for the owner of the idea, but also for the society as a whole. Today, it is impossible the economic cooperation between states, and in particular the economic cooperation between developed and developing states themselves, if there is no legal protection of intellectual property rights. The protection of itelektuale property rights can be considered as a prerequisite for development of economic cooperation between states. Legal protection of intellectual property rights means the legal regulation of these rights. In Macedonia have been approved national Acts on the basis of which are regulated many issues in relation to these rights. In addition to the national acts, Macedonia has ratified many international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of intellectual property rights. On the basis of national acts, conventions and bilateral Agreements, it has been prepared the strategy for the development of intellectual property rights in Macedonia.


Determination of Sex Markers by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorpism (AFLP) in Killifish Aphanius anatoliae anatoliae (Leidenfrost, 1912)[]


Identification of sex in fishes is a difficult task, thus genetic and ecological factors involved in sex determination. Therefore, sex specific genetic markers can be developed with using molecular techniques. In this study, sex markers of Anatolian endemic Aphanius anatoliae anatoliae [1] is tried to identify with using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique. A total of 15 different primer combinations were analysed with using a sex-typed pool strategy for 18 individuals of two populations from Turkey. Three of clearly appeared bands were polymorphic between populations. Observed different bands were found for the males of Tuz Golu populations while they were found for the females of Gunesli populations. The results of the study showed that the AFLP technique has a potential of solving sex identification problems of A. a. anatoliae and it is obvious that sex associated markers can be developed with AFLP technique. Between the populations of A. a. anatoliae, sex independent polymophic AFLP band profiles were observed, thus we suggest to study larger numbers of populations. From the results of this study, it is recommended to use larger number of primer combinations for the identification of sex-specific marker of A. a. anatoliae to obtain precise results.


Digital Image Watermarking Technique Using Discrete Wavelet Transform And Discrete Cosine Transform[]


Digital watermarking has been proposed as a viable solution to the need of copyright protection and authentication of multimedia data in a networked environment, since it makes possible to identify the author, owner, distributor or authorized consumer of a document. In this paper a new watermarking technique to add a code to digital images is presented: the method operates in the frequency domain embedding a pseudo-random sequence of real numbers in a selected set of DCT coefficient. And a new method for digital image watermarking which does not require the original image for watermark detection. The watermark is added in select coefficients with significant image energy in the transform domain in order to ensure non- erasability of the watermark. Advantages of the proposed method include: improved resistance to attacks on the watermark, implicit visual masking utilizing the time-frequency localization property of wavelet transform and a robust definition for the threshold which validates the watermark.. Experimental results demonstrate that this proposed technique is robust to most of the signal processing techniques and geometric distortions.


Land Use/Land Cover Change Detection of Wellington Tank Irrigation Watershed of Tittagudi Taluk, Tamilnadu, India[]


This study reveals to identify the changes of Land Use / Land Cover (LU/LC) of rural agricultural watershed of Tamilnadu mapping serve as a basic inventory of land resources throughout the world. The development activities, dynamic usage of land, increasing growth of population and varying occupation pattern of the society has resulted in reduction of land devoted to agricultural activities. This study attempted to expose the impact of changes in land use/land cover of Wellington watershed of Vellar River basin, Tittagudi Taluk, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu. The relationship between Land Use Changes and its trend is analysed using IRS IC LISS III data to know the past land use pattern. Similarly, the LU/LC map of various years, namely, 1998, 2003 and 2007, which was obtained from Institute of Remote Sensing, Anna University (IRS) and digitized using Arc GIS 9.1 and Mapinfo 8.5 software. The agricultural practices under agricultural land and cropland has most important crash over the hydrogeological process of watershed. About 85.04 per cent of land is devoted to agricultural practices in the study area. The basic reason for rapid LU/LC changes in the study area are due to conversion of paddy fields, under-utilization of potential croplands, increasing population and finally lack of guidance to the farmers has lead to land management.


Identification of Leishmania tropica by PCR and RFLP Techniques in Kohat Region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,Pakistan[]


Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a worldwide public health and a social problem in many developing countries. This disease is also found in Pakistan in general and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in particular. A total of 100 samples were examined from clinically suspected Cutaneous Leishmaniasis patients under sterilized conditions in village Sordag, District Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The DNA was extracted and amplified through PCR and reconfirmed by RFLP technique. The PCR showed the result 53% (53/100) were positive, in which 67.30% (35/100) were female while 37.50% (18/100) male positive. These results were reconfirmed through RFLP which also showed 186bp amplified fragment. It is concluded that PCR-RFLP appears to be most sensitive and appropriate techniques for the detection of Leishmania tropica.


Maximizing The Lifetime Of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Crt Based Packet Splitting Algorithm[]


Each node is usually powered by an energy limited battery, therefore energy budget and life time is a critical design constraint in WSNs and energy saving is the key issue in order to increase the network the network lifetime. There are many approaches found like duty cycling and in network aggregation, sleep wake scheduling algorithm which is used especially in solving critical synchronization and saving is obtained. The approach called multi path routing algorithm is also employed which consumes more energy. Apart from all these we aim at reducing energy consumption and increasing lifetime of WSN. So, here a proposed novel approach which splits the original messages in several packets such that each node in the network will forward only small sub packets. The splitting procedure is based on Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) algorithm which is done by a simple modular division between integers. At sink node, once all sub packets are received correctly will recombine them, thus constructs the original message. The overall complexity of algorithm remains low complex arithmetic operations. Hence maximizes the lifetime of wireless sensor networks.


Effect Of Noise Pollution On Arterial Blood Pressure And Heart Pulse Rate Of Dentists In Their Dental Offices In Duhok City- Iraq []


The aim of the present study was to assess the noise pollution and its effects on the systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart pulse rate for 12 dentists in their clinics chosen randomly in Duhok city, in Kurdistan region in North of Iraq. The mean age of the samples was 40 year, and the mean duration of their service was 6.5 years. The noise levels measured during operational periods in the chosen dental offices were found to be between 65 and 84.3 decibel (dB). The arterial blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart pulse rate of doctors were measured before and after exposure to noise for four hours. Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R) and P-values for all measured variables were calculated. R and P-values for systolic blood pressure were -0.009, 0.977, while for diastolic were 0.104, 0.749, and finally for heart pulse rate were 0.454, 0.139 respectively. This study shows that after four hours of work, there was no significant relation between the mean values for blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart pulse rate and the sound pressure levels. The average sound pressure level measured for dentists in their offices was 72.92 dB. This result indicated that the sound pressure level for all samples was lower than the limited threshold (85 dBA).


New Approach for Automatic Separation of ROI and BG in Crime Scene Images[]


Crime scene images are very sensitive to do any kind of preprocessing and compression, but the use of images is increasing in exponential manner in crime detection and crime solving, so we require to compress the crime scene images as well. For more compression ratio we can use Region of Interest (ROI) compression. For crime scene images our ROI may be evidences of crime. We might have multiple ROIs in crime scene images. Sometimes it may not possible to select ROI manually; because ROI may be too small and even sometimes we can miss some evidences in manual ROI selection. The solution to this problem is automatic separation of ROI and background (BG). In this paper, I had implemented one algorithm for automatic separation of ROI and BG for crime scene images. I had use color crime scene image for automatic separation of ROI and BG.


Effective Control Of Accidents Using Routing And Tracking System With Integrated Network Of Sensors[]


This Paper is emphasized on road accidents occurring due to Drunk and Drive (Alcohol sensor), inappropriate direction boards, negligence of the driver (sleep deprivation), health anomaly of the driver and enhance the security system of the vehicle. As the fatality rates due to accidents is increasing day by day, the above methods are implemented to decrease the fatality rate. The accidents due to the drowsy state of the driver is prevented using eye blink sensor. Similarly accidents due to the drunken state is prevented using alcohol sensor which detects the alcohol from breath of the driver and stops the engine. The aim is to prevent the accidents by providing receiver unit in vehicles along with transmitter unit at necessary places such as school zones, diversion zones, railway crossings and other accident prone zones to indicate about the respective places well in advance. Vehicles security are mandatory. So here we provide a keypad wherein a security code is set as per the owner's choice. When someone tries to start the car in the absence of the driver, an alarm which the driver owns will ring. Health anomaly of the driver is conversant through the GSM module.


Apilot Studyof cryonano(probe)surgery& Heat transfer[]


Cooling techniques are required in cryosurgery to generate the heat sink in target tissue and helps subsequent tissue freezing.cryosurgical coolingmethodsare simpleand low efficient hence new model cryoprobe was designed ,developed and simulation of was done with the help of analysis software. The cryogen Lquid nitrogen at a very low temperature was used as the working fluid .Many heat transfer mechanisms occur during cryosurgery Penne s Bioheat equations are used to find the heat transfer .Results show a significant enhancement in the freezing heat transfer. Both ice volume and surface area of heat transfer can be increased using cryobrobes with large diameter and also an increase in hydraulic diameter, there was a delay in the saturation boiling of the working fluid .A new technique called cryonanosurgery is introduced to solve the main problem in cryosurgery. In cryonanosurgery nanoparticle are injected with cryogenic surgery to maximize the freezing and there by min-imize the surrounding healthy tissues being frozen. This was done with the help of a tool called cryospray (or) cryojet (or)cryogun with different types of cryoprobes, till ice ball is formed.Nanoparticles are loaded with functional solution and injected into the target tissue. Addition of nanoparticle into biological environment increases the tissue conductivity and signif-icantly increases freezing effects and results in more ice nucleation and also helps to get better image at the edge of tumorwhich are very much needed for the successes cryosurgery. .cryoprobes are used for the treatment of diseased tissue in cry-odstructieon or cryogenicsurgery


Consumer Behaviour Of Soaps And Detergent With Reference To Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu[]


Consumer behavior is a complex pattern and sophisticated understanding for marketing research, but simply defined; study of psychological, social and physical actions who people buy, use and dispose products, service and ideas and practices.(Solomon 2006; Blackwell et at.,2001;peter and olson,2008) . Basic idea behind the consumer research was questioning of buying reasons , however researchers have to go deeper and also ask people how and in which circumstances purchase and consume. (Blackwell et al.,2001)


Burden Of Malaria Infection Among Neonates In Highly Epidemic Region Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan[]


Malaria is a major public health burden worldwide causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths during pregnancy, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission.Malaria severely affects pregnant women especially during their first pregnancy while information on the burden of malaria in early infancy is scarce. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of malaria among neonates of both rural and urban areas of district Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which was characterized by unstable transmission of malaria. A total 615 blood samples of neonates; Male = 357 (58.04%) and Female = 258 (41.95%) were collected to investigate the various risk factors of malarial parasites. The result showed that malaria infection was prevalent in the neonates and during pregnancy. Only 12 (1.95%) male neonates were found malaria positive, while no female was found positive for the malarial infection. Only 9 (1.46%) neonates of age group 1-7 days old were positive for Plasmodium falciparum with symptoms of severe temperature and neonatal sepsis, while only 3 (0.48%) neonates of age group (23-30) days were positive for Plasmodium vivax with the symptoms of severe temperature and low birth weight.


A Secure Image Cipher Scheme for Real Time Applications[]


Due to the unlimited growth of Internet and communication technologies, the extensive use of images in diverse areas such as medical, military, science, engineering, art, entertainment, advertising, education has become unavoidable. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing images, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity as well as the authenticity of images has become a major concern. This paper proposes a new encryption algorithm for providing confidentiality of images based on chaos theory. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm have been analyzed with benchmark images and are compared with various image encryption algorithms proposed in the literature.


Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanopowders in Hydrothermal and Sol-Gel Method[]


The main objective of the work is to present a systematic study on the growth, physical and chemical characterization of TiO2 nanostructures prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological and photocatalytic activity of the prepared nanostructures were analyzed. The prepared samples were calcined at different temperatures and analyzed.


A Study On Luminiscent Bacteria In Shrimp Post Larvae In Hatcheries & Rearing Tanks In East Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh, India[]


Luminous Bacterial disease is one of the major problem in shrimp culture . A study is carried out on the species of Luminiscent Bacteria in shrimp post larvae of hatcheries in E.G.Dt were studied. Qualitatively species of Luminous bacteria viz Photobacterium phosphorum, Photobacterium leiognathi, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio splendius, Vibrio vulnificus etc encountered in hatcheries. The study has indicated that the luminescent V.harveyi is dominant during the early larval stages of shrimp hatcheries lead to development of L.B diseases.


Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater: A Case study of Ibadan, Nigeria[]


In recent times, Ibadan city in south-west Nigeria has been facing severe shortage of potable water, due to increased population and socio-economic activities. In order to meet the shortfall, rainwater harvesting (RWH) has been used as an alternative water supply. A desk study was conducted to evaluate the potentials of this alternative source for the residential sector of the City. A hydrological analysis was conducted using 30 years of rainfall data from two meteorological stations, with the aim of assessing the potential for a productive rainwater harvesting system for water supply to private individuals, organizations and government agencies. The mean potential for potable water savings is 52.7%, ranging from 0.39-107.57% depending on demand conditions. An average roof size of 150 m2 in Ibadan City will collect 182,250 litres/year (99.86 litres/head/day) of water for a family of five, which is above the average daily water demand. However, the capacity of a storage tank (182,250 litres) required for an all-purpose water supply system based on RWH is quite large, but these can be reduced to a more practicable size, by collecting and storing water for cooking and drinking only, while non-potable uses are supplemented with water from other sources. This study clearly shows that Ibadan City has good potable water saving potential using rainwater.


Evaluation And Screening Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Some Important Medicinal Plants Of Assam[]


The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat diseases is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. Now-a-days, plants have been exploited as a powerful and potential source for medicinal drugs. Herbal drugs are mainly focussed as an alternative source against manifestations caused by various micro-organisms due to the increasing resistance of existing antimicrobial agents. The present study attempts to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of the crude methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Local name: Ram tulashi), Spondias pinnata (Local name: Amora), Terminalia chebula (Local name: Silikha) and Hedyotis pinifolia (Local name: Bon jaluk) against six Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes) by agar well diffusion method. Methanol extract of all the plants under study were found to be effective against all the reference strains. Highest zone of inhibition was observed against B.subtilis (23mm of clear zone) followed by L. innocua (16 mm of clear zone) in case of Terminalia chebula. The findings indicated promising antibacterial activity of the crude extracts of the above plants and needs further exploration for their effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines.


Effectiveness of National Maternity Benefit Scheme in Selected Districts of Madhya Pradesh[]


The National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS) was introduced in 2001 to provide nutrition support to pregnant women. Under this scheme, pregnant women living below the poverty line are given a one-time payment of Rs. 500,8-12 weeks prior to delivery. In the year 2005, the government of India launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to provide cash incentives for women choosing to have institutional deliveries. NMBS was merged into JSY in the same year; however, with Supreme Court's intervention, the benefits under the NMBS were retained, irrespective of the place of delivery. The study covers four relatively backward districts of Madhya Pradesh and a sample survey is conducted in total 40 villages of these districts where 482 women were interviewed who had child births in past 12 months in the year 2009-10. Data is compiled on the place of deliveries i.e. whether at home or institutional deliveries, benefits received through the scheme, corruption in the scheme and household utilized of money received by women. The study concludes that the multitude of schemes available to pregnant women and the failure of the government to communicate them clearly has caused intense confusion and resulted in widespread underutilization of the scheme. And that though JSY encourages women to have their delivery in public health institutions, these institutions are rarely capable of providing safe and competent care. Furthermore it is concluded that Jhabua district had the lowest awareness of the benefits of the scheme and highest level of corruption related to such schemes.


Simulation Of Igbt Based Cyclo Inverter Run Induction Motor[]


This paper introduces a new technique for converting power at supply frequency to a higher frequency, using a cyclo-inverter circuit, where IGBT is used as the switching element. This circuit is used in induction heating, ballast, high frequency supplies and in high speed induction motors. The control circuit developed for the cyclo-inverter supplies trigger signals for the IGBT for developing power at any frequency which is an integer multiple of supply frequency. The high frequency power is then used to run a single phase capacitor start induction motor for developing high speeds. The working of the proposed system was verified by observing waveforms on CRO and was found to be satisfactory.


Waste Water Reclamation and Reuse in Yenegoa Using Activated Carbon and Zero B[]


In this study, waste water reclamation and reuse was carried out in Yenegoa Metropolis using activated carbon and Zero B methods. Polluted waste water was obtained from Yenagoa waterside, and characterized and treated using activated carbon by column adsorption and Zero-B method separately to ascertain its potentials for reclamation and reuse. The pH, turbidity, total suspended solid (TSS) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) test was carried out on untreated and treated waste water. From the results obtained, the untreated waste water has pH 6.4, turbidity = 38.0mg/6, TSS=66.0mg/L and BOD = 14.2mg/L while the values of lead, zinc, copper and chromium present were 0.03mg/L, 0.04mg/L, 0.04mg/L and 0.03mg/L respectively. Similarly the values of treated waste water using activated carbon were 7.2, 1.9mg/L, 9.01mg/L and 4.6mg/L for pH, turbidity, TSS and BOD. While 6.99mg/L, 1.69mg/L, 8.7mg/L and 4.2mg/L were obtained for pH, turbidity, TSS and BOD using Zero-B. The treated waste water values of lead, zinc, copper and chromium have no significant change with the untreated waste water. It was recommended that the treated waste water is adequate for good water quality even though the TSS were 9.01mg/L and 8.7mg/L in both methods used.


A New Apporach To Optical Character Recognition Based On Text Recognition in OCR[]


Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a technology that enable of you to convert different types of documents, such as scanned paper documents, either hand written or machine printed script, PDF files or images captured by a digital camera into editable and searchable data. Our intention is to build an automatic text localization and extraction system which is able to accept different types of still images (or video frames) possibly with a complex background. This paper investigates methods for building an efficient application system for detecting text of any grayscale values embedded in images.


Impact of Technology for Discriminating Schizophrenia ,OCD Patient's Speech from Normal Speech Using Spectrum, Cepstrum, Pitch Determination Technique, Feature Extraction & Analysis.[]


The automation in voice disorder recognition technologies has developed more and more momentum now days because of the complications in conventional methods. Due to the nature of jobs, unhealthy social habits people are subjected to risk of speech problem [1]. Neurological disorders develops problem of voice disorder. Therefore, voice signal can be a useful tool to diagnose them. In the present paper, normal &neurological disorder speech samples are taken & a system is designed to differentiate normal from neurological signals. These signals are first preprocessed. Preprocessing techniques involves passing signal through pre-emphasis filter, moving average filter (ma), framing & windowing .The windowed signal is given for spectral analysis. In spectral analysis, various methods like logarithmic spectrum, cepstrum, auto correlation of speech signal, spectrograms are applied to differentiate normal & neurological speech signals. It has been found that with the above method normal & neurological speech signals are differentiated. Pitch of speech signal plays a vital role in analysis of speech signal, so using different techniques, pitch of normal & neurological speech signals are found. More over features like formants extraction and there analysis is done using LPC filter respectively.


A Quantitative Approach for Textural Image Segmentation with Median Filter[]


Retrieving images from large and varied collections using image content as a key is a challenging and important problem. The success of the approach depends on the definition of a comprehensive set of goals for the computation of edge points. In this paper an approach is proposed which segment the image by separating the texture. The proposed method, nonlinear filters, removes only corrupted pixel by the median value or by its neighboring pixel value. As a result, the proposed method removes the noise effectively even at noise level as high and preserves the edges.


Literature Review on Texture Classification Using Wavelet Transform[]


Classification of image textures is an important task in image processing and pattern recognition. Over the years, extensive researches have been done for the classification of the texture images. The wavelet transform is an important multi-resolution analysis tool has been commonly applied to image analysis and various classification systems. The texture is characterized by a set of channel variances estimated at the output of the corresponding filter bank.


An Efficient identity based Multi-receiver Signcryption Scheme using ECC[]


Signcryption is a technique of performing signature and encryption in a single logical step. It is a secure and efficient technique of providing security between the sender and the receiver so that the data send by the sender should be made secure from various types of attacks such as desynchronization attacks, identity disclosure attack and spoofing attacks. Although there are many technique implemented for the generation of signature and encryption. Here a new and efficient technique of signcryption has been implemented in a multireceiver environment on the basis of identity of the receiver. The proposed work given here is the implementation of signcryption scheme using elliptic curve cryptography where the authentication between sender and the receiver is based on the identity of the receiver.


Micro Controller Based Automatic Plant Irrigation System[]


The main aim of this paper is to provide automatic irrigation to the plants which helps in saving money and water. The entire system is controlled using 8051 micro controller which is programmed as giving the interrupt signal to the sprinkler.Temperature sensor and humidity sensor are connected to internal ports of micro controller via comparator,When ever there is a change in temperature and humidity of the surroundings these sensors senses the change in temperature and humidity and gives an interrupt signal to the micro-controller and thus the sprinkler is activated.


Gps Integrated Navigation System[]


In my project I am developing a computer program that will simulate and explain the need of technology and advance system for any person moving or navigating in a car (or any vehicle). Every person in day to day life requires some navigation for the proper working of his work .it is the human nature that ever man takes some guidance about some or another work without guidance the job taken by a human being will be completed properly or not is not known. So, for a proper working of your decided schedule you should know everything about the place where you live. You do know and if you ought to know then you can use "Emergency Navigation System".


Challenges For Human Resource Experts In Global Scenario[]


Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected goals. People can take a company to commanding heights. The management activities are different for every manager. Some managers find different strategies, and implement them in their respective fields. Obviously they arrive at better results. They are called experts. The great Tamil Poet Thiruvalluvar has extensively spoken about administration. And we find many couplets that bring to our mind modern concepts of Human Resource Management. We can enumerate ten very important challenges for human resource specialist in this scenario. The scholar is presenting briefly the following: The Changing Role of the HR, Competition for talents, Outsourcing, Working Environment, Diversity of Work force, Technology, Leadership development, Organization culture, Conference and Candidates experience


Heavy Metals Contamination Of Tea Estates Soil In Sivasagar And Dibrugarh Districts Of Assam, India[]


The aim was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in tea estates soil in the Dibrugarh and Sivasagar districts of Assam, India. Soil samples from twenty tea estates and a control site were analysed for selected heavy metals namely: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn. Soil samples were obtained triplicates and at depths of 0 to 15(surface), 15 to 30(subsurface I) and 30 to 60(subsurface II) cm respectively in the month of December every year from 2007 to 2009. According to the results, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn contents of soils ranged from 1.52 to 2.83, 1.28 to 2.80 and 1.19 to 2.69 mg/kg; 68.73 to 102.02, 56.0 to 94.07 and 46.58 to 88.93 mg/kg; 16.73 to 36.33, 15.35 to 31.73 and 13.17 to 29.13 mg/kg; 4.933 to 10.766, 4.405 to 9.962 and 3.206 to 8.531 mg/g; 25.17 to 52.88, 20.17 to 41.67 and 16.97 to 33.70 mg/kg; 118.53 to 420.53, 103.73 to 390.33 and 92.07 to 377.50 mg/kg; 34.40 to 65.37, 30.67 to 60.00 and 19.13 to 46.27 mg/kg and 21.43 to 65.20, 21.07 to 56.47 and 17.70 to 48.87 mg/kg for the surface, subsurface (I) and subsurface (II) soil respectively. Evidence of contamination of these soils was obvious when these values were compared to the control soil. The results revealed that the concentration of the heavy metals were below the typical agricultural soil critical level but higher the soil control. Among these Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn are micronutrients and Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb are soil pollutants. Heavy metals can create some harmful effects on the eco- system and cause the environmental pollution due to their toxic impacts on plants, animals and human beings.


Column-Oriented Databases to Gain High Performance for Data Warehouse System[]


Column-oriented database systems, also known as column-stores, have an important demand in the past few years. Basically, it is about storing each database column separately so that the attributes belonging to the same column would be stored contiguously, compressed and densely-packed in the disk. This method has advantages in reading the records faster as compared to classical row-stores in which every row are stored one after another in the disk. These databases are more suitable for data warehousing system to get analysis done faster as data is stored in columnar form. Indexes are much faster in column oriented databases which results in faster data retrieval and hence data analysis. This is an alternate database technology over row oriented database systems.


Performance Management of In Memory Databases []


In-memory databases are becoming increasingly popular and an ever-more important factor in performance-critical activities such as stream processing and deep data analytics. Join Julian Stuhler as he delves into the world of in-memory databases: a technology that's both reassuringly familiar and intriguingly novel at the same time. In memory database systems are fastest database systems as the database itself resides in system's memory, so whenever there is any query comes to it need not to go to hard disk to read or write data to hard dis saving time and performance of the entire system.





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